Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer
© Rivas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 22 March 2012
Accepted: 7 December 2012
Published: 18 December 2012
Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense) in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay.
The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA) and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs) transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors.
This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer.
This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors revealed no expression of these mitochondrial transcripts. This assay can be explored as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer (BC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 386.000 new cases and 150.000 deaths occurring worldwide in 2008. Bladder tumors are classified into four categories: papilloma, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low malignant potential, low-grade carcinoma, high-grade carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. About 90% of bladder cancers are urothelial carcinomas and transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) and the rest include squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. As many other types of cancer, early detection of BC will allow effective treatments of patients, improving long-term survival.
The “gold standard” in the detection of BC is cystoscopy. This examination, however, is unpleasant, time consuming, expensive and may result in infections and urethral damage. On the other hand, urine cytology has high specificity but low sensitivity, especially in low-grade disease[4, 5]. To improve the detection of BC cells in voided urine, several tumor markers and tests have been developed[6, 7]. One of these tests is based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect chromosomal alterations characteristic of BC.
Human cells express a family of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) containing stem-loop structures. One of these transcripts, the sense mitochondrial ncRNA or SncmtRNA, is expressed in normal proliferating cells and tumor cells but not in non-dividing cells[9, 10]. Experimental evidences suggest that this transcript plays a regulatory role of the cell cycle. In addition, normal human proliferating cells in culture or in normal human tissues express two antisense transcripts, AsncmtRNA-1 and AsncmtRNA-2. Interestingly, the SncmtRNA and the AsncmtRNAs exit the mitochondria and localize to the cytoplasm and the nucleus in association with chromatin and nucleoli, suggesting that the function of these transcripts take place outside the organelle.
The function of the ASncmtRNAs is less clear. However, an interesting observation is that the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cell lines as well as in tumor cells present in different types of human cancer and patients. In situ hybridization of twelve BC biopsies from different patients shows expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Since down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs seems to be independent of the tissue of origin of tumor cells, the differential expression of these transcripts can be applied as a cancer diagnostic method for cells in suspension. Here, we present a one-tube fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol applied to cells in suspension (S-FISH), that takes about 60 min to perform and using simultaneously labeled probes for both SncmtRNA and AsncmtRNAs. This method was applied to cells isolated from urine of patients with bladder cancer (BC). In twenty four patients with low and high grade of BC, S-FISH revealed cells expressing the SncmtRNAs and not the ASncmtRNAs, hence corresponding to cancer cells phenotype. The expression of these transcripts was negative in the few cells isolated from the urine of healthy donors. The differential expression of the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs in cells isolated from voided urine can be explored as a new non-invasive diagnostic test for BC.
Tumor cell culture
T24 and RT4 cells (human bladder carcinoma) and DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma) were cultured according to ATCC recommendations. Cultures were maintained in a humidified incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were isolated and stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) for 48 h as described before[9, 10, 13]. Primary renal mixed epithelial cells were obtained from ATCC and cultured according to ATCC guidelines.
All the hybridization steps were performed in MaxiRecovery™ tubes of 0.5 ml (Axygen Scientific, US). After trypsinization (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, US), about 105 cells were recovered by centrifugation at 200 × g for 10 min at room temperature (RT). The cell pellet was resuspended in 100 μl HCl 0,2 N and incubated for 5 min at RT. Afterwards, the cell suspension was diluted with 400 μl PBS (50 mM sodium phosphate, 150 mM NaCl and 2 mM EDTA, pH 9.0) and centrifuged again. The sediment was resuspended in 100 μl hybridization buffer (50% formamide, 150 μg/ml herring sperm DNA, 4X SSC, 2 mM EDTA) containing 0,5 μM 5′-Alexa fluor 488-labeled probe P1 (5′ GTTCTTGGGTGGGTGTGGG 3′), complementary to the SncmtRNA and 0,05 μM each of two 5′ Texas Red-labeled probes P2 (5′ GATAACAGCGCAATCCTATT 3′) and P3 (5′ ACCGTGCAAAGGTAGCATAATCA 3′), complementary to the ASncmtRNAs. In addition, two negative controls corresponding to mismatch probes P5 for the SncmtRNA (MM: 5′ TTTATTTGATGAGTGTGAG 3′), labeled with Alexa fluor 488 and probe P6 for the ASncmtRNAs (MM: 5′ GTAAAGATAGTATAATAATTTATTAATTAAATATA 3′), labeled with Texas Red at the 5′ end. The labeled probes were obtained from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, USA).
Hybridization was carried out for 15 min to 2 h at 37°C. The final wash was performed by addition of four volumes of stringency buffer (2X SCC + 2 mM EDTA) to the hybridization mix, incubated for 5 min at 37°C and finally centrifuged at 200 × g for 10 min. The supernatant was discarded and a small volume of approximately 20 μl of the residual supernatant was left in the tube to resuspend the cells. The cells were finally stained in a solution of 1 μg/ml DAPI, deposited onto a positively charged slide (Thermo Scientific, US) and mounted in fluorescent medium (DAKO). Samples were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy on an Olympus BX-51 microscope under x600 magnification, with 300-600 ms exposition and results were documented with Q-capture Pro software. The positive hybridization control corresponded to a 5′-Texas Red-labeled probe complementary to 18S rRNA (P4: 5′ AGTGGACTCATTCCAATTACA 3′).
About 30-50 ml voided urine from male and female healthy donors was carried out in agreement with the ethical guidelines approved by the Ethical Committee of the Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida. The urine from healthy donors (50 ml) was loaded with 5×104 to 1×105 T24 or DU-145 cells or PHA-stimulated lymphocytes and incubated at 4°C for 24 h. The cells were sedimented by centrifugation at 700 × g for 10 min. The supernatant was discarded, leaving only 5 ml, which were transferred to a Kova tube (Hycor Biomedical Inc., US) and centrifuged again at 200 × g for 10 min at RT. Most of the supernatant was discarded and the remnant (~1ml) was transferred to a 0,5 ml Maxy-Recovery tube (Axygen Scientific, US), centrifuged at 200 × g and subjected to S-FISH as described above.
Distribution of tumor stage and grade among all patients included in this study
Grade and stage
Optimization of the S-FISH protocol
Stability of the mitochondrial ncRNAs in urine
Detection of tumor cells in voided urine of patients with BC
FISH provides an important tool for conventional cytogenetics and evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities associated with several malignancies. Some examples of chromosomal abnormalities are found in several diseases, such as BC[16–20], multiple myeloma[21–23], breast cancer, hematological malignancies[25–28] and lung cancer[29, 30] among others. Different types of tumor require specific sets of probes corresponding to particular chromosomal deletions/translocations characteristic of each cancer. Sokolova et al. reported the development of a FISH assay with high sensitivity and specificity for high grade BC using four labeled probes specific for the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and for the detection of the 9p21 deletion. These results were confirmed in later studies with a large cohort of BC patients[16–20] using several probes combined into a single multiprobe cocktail, to detect polysomy of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and homozygous deletion of 9p21 in the urine of BC patients (Urovysion, Abbot Molecular/Vysis, Des Plaines, IL). However, this test has low sensitivity for low-stage and low-grade tumors, which are the main group that recur.
The S-FISH assay described here is able to detect the differential expression of the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs in normal and cancer cells. This a simple protocol that was optimized in three steps including a single permeabilization step with HCl, a short hybridization step and a brief washing that basically involves the dilution of the hybridization mix with stringency buffer (Figure1). The protocol contains only three centrifugation steps in the same tube, minimizing the manipulation of cells and therefore maximizing RNA preservation and cell recovery. This test is reproducible and has been applied to other normal and tumor cell lines. Hybridization of normal proliferating cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, keratinocytes and melanocytes) reveals the expression of the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs. In other human tumor cell lines such as HeLa, 42/95 and SK-MEL-2 (melanoma), Jurkat and HL-60 (leukemia) and MDA-MB-231 (breast carcinoma), S-FISH revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNA (unpublished data).
Moreover, S-FISH was able to detect cancer cells in urine from twenty four patients with BC and the results were independent of the grade of BC and the urine cellularity (see Figure5). Taken together, the results suggest that the diagnostic test has a very high positive outcome independent of the grade and the amount of cells recovered from urine of patients with BC. In the urine from healthy donors, cells were recovered only from six out of fifteen samples and the S-FISH revealed absence of signal to both transcripts.
Taken together, this pilot study suggests that S-FISH could be used for detection and regular surveillance programs of patients with BC. Interestingly, the results indicate that the exfoliated bladder tumor cells from low and high grade BC conserve the expression pattern observed in bladder cancer biopsies: expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. In summary, S-FISH may potentially be used as a non-invasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer. However, to validate the test, a large cohort of patients with low-grade and high-grade neoplasms should be included together with other urological diseases such as glomerulonephritis, infections of the upper urinary track and other benign urinary track diseases.
Supported by Grant 1085210, FONDECYT, Millennium Scientific Initiative N° P-77-09 F, Grants DI-20-11-I, Universidad Andrés Bello, Grant D04I1338, FONDEF, the CCTE-PFB16 Program of Conicyt and Grant 12IDL4-13358, CORFO-INNOVA, Chile
- Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D: Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011, 61: 69-90. 10.3322/caac.20107.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaufman DS, Shipley WU, Feldman AS: Bladder cancer. Lancet. 2009, 374: 239-249. 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60491-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Tilborg AA, Bangma CH, Zwarthoff EC: Bladder cancer biomarkers and their role in surveillance and screening. Int J Urol. 2009, 16: 23-30. 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2008.02174.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maier U, Simak R, Neuhold N: The clinical value of urinary cytology: 12 years of experience with 615 patients. J Clin Pathol. 1995, 48: 314-317. 10.1136/jcp.48.4.314.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ross J, Cohen M: Ancilliary methods for the detection of recurrent urothelial neoplasia. Cancer. 2000, 90: 75-86. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000425)90:2<75::AID-CNCR2>3.0.CO;2-W.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Msaouel P, Koutsilieris M: Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cells detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer. 2011, 11: 336-349. 10.1186/1471-2407-11-336.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ecke T: Focus on urinary bladder cancer markers: a review. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2008, 60: 237-246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sokolova IA, Halling KC, Jenkins RB, Burkhardt HM, Meyer RG, Seelig SA, King W: The development of a multitarget, multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the detection of urothelial carcinoma in urine. J Mol Diagn. 2000, 2: 116-123. 10.1016/S1525-1578(10)60625-3.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Villegas J, Burzio V, Villota C, Landerer E, Martinez R, Santander M, Martinez R, Pinto R, Vera MI, Boccardo E, Villa LL, Burzio LO: Expression of a novel non-coding mitochondrial RNA in human proliferating cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007, 35: 7336-7347. 10.1093/nar/gkm863.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Burzio VA, Villota C, Villegas J, Landerer E, Boccardo E, Villa LL, Martínez R, Lopez C, Gaete F, Toro V, Rodriguez X, Burzio LO: Expression of a family of noncoding mitochondrial RNAs distinguishes normal from cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009, 106: 9430-9434. 10.1073/pnas.0903086106.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Villota C, Campos A, Vidaurre S, Oliveira-Cruz L, Boccardo E, Burzio VA, Varas M, Villegas J, Villa LL, Valenzuela PDT, Socias M, Roberts S, Burzio LO: Expression of mitocondrial ncRNAs is modulated by high risk HPV oncogenes. J Biol Chem. 2012, 287: 21303-21315. 10.1074/jbc.M111.326694.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Landerer E, Villegas J, Burzio VA, Oliveira L, Villota C, Lopez C, Restovic F, Martinez R, Castillo O, Burzio LO: Nuclear localization of the mitochondrial ncRNAs in normal and cancer cells. Cellular Oncol. 2011, 34: 297-305. 10.1007/s13402-011-0018-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dergunova NN, Bulycheva TI, Artemenko EG, Shpakova AP, Pegova AN, Gemjian EG, Dudnik OA, Zatsepina OV, Malashenko OS: A major nucleolar protein B23 as a marker of proliferation activity of human peripheral lymphocytes. Immunol Lett. 2002, 83: 67-72. 10.1016/S0165-2478(02)00085-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Babjuk M, Oosterlinck W, Sylvester R, Kaasinen E, Böhle A, Palou-Redorta J, Morgan Roupret M: EAU guidelines on non–muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, the 2011 update. Eur Urol. 2011, 59: 997-1008. 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.03.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolff DJ, Bagg A, Cooley LD, Dewald GW, Hirsch BA, Jacky PB, Rao KW, Rao PN: Guidance for fluorescencein situhybridization testing in hematologic disorders. J Mol Diagn. 2007, 9: 134-143. 10.2353/jmoldx.2007.060128.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Halling KC, King W, Sokolova IA, Meyer RG, Burkhardt HM, Halling AC, Cheville JC, Sebo TJ, Ramakumar S, Stewart CS, Pankratz S, O’Kane DJ, Seelig SA, Lieber MM, Jenkins RB: A comparison of cytology and fluorescencein situhybridization for the detection of urothelial carcinoma. J Urol. 2000, 164: 1768-1775. 10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67104-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kang JU, Koo SH, Jeong TE, Kwon KC, Park JW, Jeon CH: Multitarget fluorescencein situhybridization and melanoma antigen genes analysis in primary bladder carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006, 164: 32-38. 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2005.06.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kipp BR, Tanasescu M, Else TA, Bryant SC, Karnes RJ, Sebo TJ, Halling KC: Quantitative fluorescencein situhybridization and its ability to predict bladder cancer recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer. J Mol Diagn. 2009, 11: 148-154. 10.2353/jmoldx.2009.080096.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Colucci G, Floege J, Schena FP: The urinary sediment beyond light microscopical examination. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006, 21: 1482-1485. 10.1093/ndt/gfl223.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meiers I, Singh H, Hossain D, Lang K, Liu L, Qian J, Verhest AP, Bostwick DG: Improved filter method for urine sediment detection of urothelial carcinoma by fluorescencein situhybridization. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007, 131: 1574-1579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stewart AK, Fonseca R: Review of molecular diagnostics in multiple myeloma. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2007, 7: 453-459. 10.1586/14737188.8.131.523.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bryce AH, Ketterling RP, Gertz MA, Lacy M, Knudson RA, Zeldenrust S, Kumar S, Hayman S, Buadi F, Kyle RA, Greipp PR, Lust JA, Russell S, Rajkumar SV, Fonseca R, Dispenzieri A: Translocation t(11;14) and survival of patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Haematologica. 2009, 94: 380-386. 10.3324/haematol.13369.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Avet-Loiseau H, Soulier J, Fermand JP, Yakoub-Agh : IFM and MAG groups. Impact of high-risk cytogenetics and prior therapy on outcomes in patients with advanced relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide plus dexaméthasone. Leukemia. 2010, 24: 623-628. 10.1038/leu.2009.273.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pauletti G, Godolphin W, Press MF, Slamon DJ: Detection and quantitation of HER-2/neu gene amplification in human breast cancer archival material using fluorescencein situhybridization. Oncogene. 1996, 13: 63-72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Escudier SM, Pereira-Leahy JM, Drach JW, Weier HU, Goodacre AM, Cork MA, Trujillo JM, Keating MJ, Andreeff M: Fluorescentin situhybridization and cytogenetic studies of trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 1993, 81: 2702-2707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hagemeijer A, Buijs A, Smit E, Janssen B, Creemers GJ, Van der Plas D, Grosveld G: Translocation of BCR to chromosome 9: a new cytogenetic variant detected by FISH in two Ph-negative, BCR-positive patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1993, 8: 237-245. 10.1002/gcc.2870080406.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zanardi A, Bandiera D, Bertolini F, Corsini CA, Gregato G, Milani P, Barborini E, Carbone R: Miniaturized FISH for screening of onco-hematological malignancies. Biotechniques. 2010, 49: 497-504. 10.2144/000113445.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelson B, Gupta R, Dewald G, Paternoster S, Rosen S, Peterson L: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia FISH impact on diagnosis panel. American J Clinical Pathol. 2007, 128: 323-332. 10.1309/21TN2RUWKR827UW2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang F, Caraway NP, Nebiyou Bekele B, Zhang HZ, Khanna A, Wang H, Li R, Fernandez RL, Zaidi TM, Johnston DA, Katz RL: Surfactant protein A gene deletion and prognostics for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005, 11: 5417-5424. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2087.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li R, Liu Z, Fan T, Jiang F: A novel multiple FISH array for the detection of genetic aberrations in cancer. Lab Invest. 2006, 86: 619-627.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2490/12/37/prepub