Problems in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in a spinal cord injury patient: Report of a case of simultaneous production of granulocyte colony stimulating factor and parathyroid hormone-related protein by squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder
© Vaidyanathan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2002
Received: 25 March 2002
Accepted: 30 August 2002
Published: 30 August 2002
Typical symptoms and signs of a clinical condition may be absent in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients.
A male with paraplegia was passing urine through penile sheath for 35 years, when he developed urinary infections. There was no history of haematuria. Intravenous urography showed bilateral hydronephrosis. The significance of abnormal outline of bladder was not appreciated. As there was large residual urine, he was advised intermittent catheterisation. Serum urea: 3.5 mmol/L; creatinine: 77 umol/L. A year later, serum urea: 36.8 mmol/l; creatinine: 632 umol/l; white cell count: 22.2; neutrophils: 18.88. Ultrasound: bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral nephrostomy was performed. Subsequently, blood tests showed: Urea: 14.2 mmol/l; Creatinine: 251 umol/l; Adjusted Calcium: 3.28 mmol/l; Parathyroid hormone: < 0.7 pmol/l (1.1 – 6.9); Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP): 2.3 pmol/l (0.7 – 1.8). Ultrasound scan of urinary bladder showed mixed echogenicity, which was diagnosed as debris. CT of pelvis was interpreted as vesical abscess. Urine cytology: Transitional cells showing mild atypia. Bladder biopsy: Inflamed mucosa lined by normal urothelial cells.
A repeat ultrasound scan demonstrated a tumour arising from right lateral wall; biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. In view of persistently high white cell count and high calcium level, immunohistochemistry for G-CSF and PTHrP was performed. Dense staining of tumour cells for G-CSF and faintly positive staining for C-terminal PTHrP were observed. This patient expired about five months later.
This case demonstrates how delay in diagnosis of bladder cancer could occur in a SCI patient due to absence of characteristic symptoms and signs.
In the patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), diagnosis of a clinical condition may be delayed because these patients do not manifest traditional symptoms and signs. For example, the symptoms and signs of hydronephrosis due to urinary calculus may be bizarre and non-specific in SCI patients. . In a tetraplegic patient, pyonephrosis with perinephric abscess was detected only during autopsy. . We experienced problems in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in a SCI patient due to difficulties in interpretation of intravenous urography, ultrasound scan of urinary bladder and CT of pelvis, and failure to recognise the significance of persistently high white cell count and elevated C-reactive protein.
Bladder cancer may very rarely produce granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). [2–9]. Kawanishi and associates  described a 84-year-old male with bladder cancer in whom, the white cell count was 46,900/mm3 in the peripheral blood and G-CSF was 226 pg/ml (normal: 30 pg/ml). The leucocyte count in the peripheral blood returned to the normal range after resection of the tumour (partial cystectomy). But leucocytosis recurred one month post-operatively and CT scan revealed intrapelvic tumour recurrence.
Bladder cancer has been shown to produce parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), albeit very rarely. [10, 11]. Simultaneous production of both G-CSF and PTHrP is extremely uncommon. [12–14]. The gene encoding G-CSF and PTHrP is in the long arm of chromosome 17 and the short arm of chromosome 12, respectively. . It is possible that there might be a specific abnormality in these chromosomes for simultaneous production of G-CSF and PTHrP.
We report a SCI patient who presented with recurrent urinary infection. The white cell count was high and calcium level in peripheral blood was raised. Bladder tumour was discovered and immunohistochemistry revealed positive immunostaining for G-CSF and PTHrP.
We believe that this case represents the first report of bladder cancer in a SCI patient with simultaneous production of G-CSF and PTHrP.
A follow-up intravenous urography (23/10/2000) showed normal left kidney and ureter. But there was no excretion of contrast by the right kidney. Neither ultrasound scan of urinary bladder, nor cystoscopy, was performed at this stage. A MAG-3 renogram was requested to assess differential kidney function. MAG 3 renogram, which was performed on 18/06/2001, showed evidence of a cold area presumably corresponding to the right hydronephrotic kidney. Very little function was demonstrated in the left renal area. The nuclear medicine physician alerted that the patient had renal failure. On 18 June 2001, serum urea was 36.8 mmol/L; creatinine: 632 umol/L. Results of blood tests (urea, creatinine, calcium, C-reactive protein, white cell count, neutrophils, and adjusted calcium) from 03/07/2000 to 28/11/2001, are shown in seven charts in additional file 1.
Bilateral percutaneous right nephrostomy was performed. Following nephrostomy drainage, blood tests showed: Urea: 14.2 mmol/l; Creatinine: 251 umol/l; Calcium: 2.92 mmol/l; Adjusted Calcium: 3.28 mmol/l; Parathyroid hormone: < 0.7 pmol/l (1.1 – 6.9); PTHrP: 2.3 pmol/l (0.7 – 1.8).
He developed a fistula at the site of suprapubic cystostomy. This patient received intravenous infusion of 60 mg of disodium pamidronate at periodic intervals to control hypercalcemia. He was not considered suitable for radiotherapy or chemotherapy. He had a progressive downhill course and expired about five months after bladder cancer was diagnosed.
Immunohistochemistry for G-CSF and PTHrP
In view of persistently high white cell count and high calcium level, immunohistochemistry of tumour tissue for both G-CSF and PTHrP was performed independently in two reputed laboratories. Experienced pathologists of international standing interpreted the slides of immuno-staining, and they were unaware of each other's findings.
An immunohistochemical examination of tumour biopsy for both G-CSF and PTHrP was done in Kidney Disease Centre, Saitama Medical School, 38 Morohongo, Moroyamamachi, Iruma, Saitama 3500495, Japan, on paraffin-embedded thin sections. Anti human C-PTHrP sheep serum (109–141, provided by Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and anti-human G-CSF rabbit serum (provided by Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were used as primary antibodies. Biotin-rabbit anti sheep IgG (Zymed Laboratories, Inc., CA, U.S.A.), and ENVISION Polymer (peroxidase labelled polymer conjugated to anti-mouse and anti-rabbit Immunoglobulins, DAKO, CA, U.S.A.) served as second antibodies, respectively. The sections were subjected to immunostaining using a Histofine DAB substrate kit (Nichirei Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).
Immunohistochemistry for both G-CSF and PTHrP were carried out on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, thin sections of tumour biopsy in the Department of Pathology, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Minatoku, Tokyo, Japan, with the following antibodies. The antibody for PTHrP was purchased from the Biogenesis Ltd. England, U.K. (Catalogue number 7170–9208). Anti rG-CSF rabbit polyclonal antibody (Lot number V-1-9) was obtained from the Chugai Pharmaceutical Company, Tokyo, Japan. The scientists in both laboratories were not aware that immunohistochemistry for G-CSF and PTHrP were being carried out in another laboratory for confirmation.
Estimation of G-CSF and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in blood
Since this patient had elevated white cell count, G-CSF and IL-8 were estimated in blood on two occasions. Seven ml of blood was taken in a gel-free heparinised tube for estimation of G-CSF, and IL-8. Plasma was separated in a refrigerated centrifuge. The plasma sample was stored at -20 degrees Celsius and transported within 72 hours on dry ice to Division of Immunobiology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, England. IL-8 levels in the plasma were estimated using an ELISA as described previously . G-CSF was measured by bioassay using the GNFS-60 cell-line.
Results of bioassay for G-CSF and ELISA for IL-8 revealed that the plasma levels of G-CSF and IL-8 were below detectable limits.
Receptors of G-CSF have been confirmed on the cell surfaces of several non-haematopoietic cell types, including bladder cancer cells. Tachibana and associates determined the expression of receptors of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSFR) in five different human bladder cancer cell lines and 26 primary bladder cancers. Three, out of the five cultured cell lines, exhibited G-CSFR mRNA signals when the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used. With in situ RT-PCR, the tumour cells of 6 out of 26 primary bladder tumour specimens (23.1%) presented positive G-CSFR mRNA signals .
G-CSF produced by non-haematopoietic malignant cells has been reported to be capable of inducing a leukemoid reaction in the host through intense stimulation of leucocyte production. This is illustrated by the case of a 76-year-old man who had a metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and who demonstrated marked leucocytosis, his peripheral blood leucocyte count was 94,900 leucocytes/mm3, his serum G-CSF level was 103 pg/ml. The culture medium in which the cancer cells were grown exclusively contained a significant amount of G-CSF (5560 pg/ml) . G-CSF production in human bladder cancer is most frequently associated with aggressive tumour cell growth and a poor clinical outcome. . Sadly, poor prognosis of C-GSF-producing bladder tumour became true in our patient. The bladder cancer showed positive immunostaining for G-CSF, and he died about five months after bladder cancer was diagnosed.
What did we learn from this case?
1. The cardinal symptom of vesical malignancy is haematuria. But this typical feature of bladder cancer was absent in this SCI patient. Amongst seventeen SCI patients in whom bladder cancer was detected at the Memphis Veterans Affairs Hospital during a surveillance programme for vesical malignancy, seven patients did not have haematuria. . This patient did not pass blood in urine at any time. Therefore, we failed to appreciate the significance of abnormal outline of the right side of the urinary bladder and did not suspect bladder cancer in intravenous urography.
2. This SCI patient with bladder cancer presented with recurrent urinary infection. We did not perform cystoscopy during this patient's initial visits to the hospital. We have learnt lessons from this case and now we perform cystoscopy in the following categories of SCI patients:
Cystoscopy to screen for squamous cell cancer of the bladder in spinal cord injured patients with chronic or recurrent urinary tract infection resulted in an earlier stage at diagnosis and appears to convey a survival advantage. . But the cost effectiveness of cystoscopy in SCI patients with recurrent urinary infection needs to be assessed as recurrent urinary infection is not uncommon in SCI patients.
Typical symptoms of bladder cancer were absent in this SCI patient. This patient had elevated C-reactive protein, and persistently high white cell count. Initially, we attributed high white cell count and C-reactive protein to urinary infection and prescribed repeated courses of antibiotics. We made a wrong diagnosis of debris in ultrasound scan of the urinary bladder; we interpreted CT of pelvis as showing vesical abscess. Only when high white cell count persisted despite treatment with multiple courses of antibiotics, we realised that high white cell count could be tumour related, and then performed immunostaining of tumour tissue for G-CSF. Lo and behold, immunostaining for G-CSF was positive. Health professionals from various disciplines worked together to reach the correct diagnosis of bladder cancer producing both PTHrP and G-CSF. We learn that a joint team approach in reaching a diagnosis, and in implementing a treatment regime, is likely to reduce delays in diagnosis and improve the quality of care of SCI patients .
The authors thank the patient's father, who kindly agreed for publication of this case in BioMed Central Urology. The authors wish to record their sincere gratitude to the patient and to his family for their help in publication of this case in BioMed Central. While he was alive, the patient permitted us to send his biopsy specimens to Japan for immunohistochemistry for PTHrP and G-CSF. The patient gave permission to take blood samples twice for PTHrP and G-CSF assay.
We wish to record our gratitude to Dr Dan Theodorescu, Department of Urology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Centre, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA and Dr Yoichi Mizutani, Department of Urology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan, for their valuable comments.
The authors thank Dr Tatsuhiko Hayashi, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital, 1-4-17 Mita, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 108-0073, Japan, for his valuable help in immunohistochemistry.
The authors thank AstraZeneca (Ms Charlotte Lawledge), Pharmacia (Ms Joanne Thomas), and Shire Pharmaceuticals (Mr Patrick Tierney) for financial support, which enabled the Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, UK to become an institutional member of BioMed Central.
- Vaidyanathan S, Singh G, Soni BM, Hughes P, Watt JW, Dundas S, Sett P, Parsons KF: Silent hydronephrosis/pyonephrosis due to upper urinary tract calculi in spinal cord injury patients. Spinal Cord. 2000, 38: 661-668. 10.1038/sj.sc.3101053.PubMedView Article
- Otani N, Kumamoto Y, Tsukamoto T, Satoh T, Sakauchi F: Bladder carcinoma producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Urol Int. 1994, 52: 115-117.PubMedView Article
- Akiyama A, Ohkubo Y, Hokoishi F, Ito T, Tsuchiya A, Kusama H: Bladder carcinoma producing granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). A case report. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 1994, 85: 1135-1138.PubMed
- Nishimura K, Higashino M, Hara T, Oka T: Bladder cancer producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: a case report. Int J Urol. 1996, 3: 152-154.PubMedView Article
- Nemoto R, Nakamura I, Oshika Y, Nakamura M: Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: a case report of molecular diagnosis. Br J Urol. 1996, 78: 653-654. 10.1046/j.1464-410X.1996.21234.x.PubMedView Article
- Ito S, Iwai Y, Fujii T, Yoshida N, Hayashi S: Two cases of bladder tumor producing granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1999, 45: 57-60.PubMed
- Iwata T, Araki H, Kushima R, Date S, Tanaka S: A case of bladder tumor producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1999, 45: 847-850.PubMed
- Kajio K, Hasegawa Y, Ihara K, Harada S, Kawauchi S, Fukuda T, Naito S: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor producing undifferentiated carcinoma of urinary bladder: a case report. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2000, 91: 679-682.PubMed
- Kawanishi H, Aoyama T, Yoshida T, Sasaki M, Itoh T: Bladder carcinoma producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): a case report. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2001, 47: 429-432.PubMed
- Yoshida T, Suzumiya J, Katakami H, Kimura N, Hisano S, Kikuchi M, Okumura M: Hypercalcemia caused by PTH-rP associated with lung metastasis from urinary bladder carcinoma: an autopsied case. Intern Med. 1994, 33: 673-676.PubMedView Article
- Maeda Y, Nakazawa H, Yoshimura N, Okuda H, Oshima T, Ito F, Onitsuka S, Kihara T, Goya N, Toma H: Bladder carcinoma presenting with hypercalcemia: a case report. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1997, 43: 137-140.PubMed
- Kamai T, Arai G, Takagi K, Kamai T, Arai G, Takagi K: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and parathyroid hormone related protein producing bladder cancer. J Urol. 1999, 161: 1565-1566. 10.1097/00005392-199905000-00044.PubMedView Article
- Ueno M, Ban S, Ohigashi T, Nakanoma T, Nonaka S, Hirata R, Iida M, Deguchi N: Simultaneous production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and parathyroid hormone-related protein in bladder cancer. Int J Urol. 2000, 7: 72-75. 10.1046/j.1442-2042.2000.00141.x.PubMedView Article
- McRae SN, Gilbert R, Deamant FD, Reese JH: Poorly differentiated carcinoma of bladder producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and parathyroid hormone related protein. J Urol. 2001, 165: 527-528. 10.1097/00005392-200102000-00049.PubMedView Article
- Wadhwa M, Seghatchian MJ, Lubenko A, Contreras M, Dilger P, Bird C, Thorpe R: Cytokine levels in platelet concentrates: quantitation by bioassays and immunoassays. British Journal of Haematology. 1996, 93: 225-234. 10.1046/j.1365-2141.1996.4611002.x.PubMedView Article
- Wadhwa M, Bird C, Dilger P, Mire-Sluis AR, Thorpe R: Quantitative biological assays for cytokines. In: Cytokine Cell Biology – A Practical Approach. Edited by: FR Balkwill. 2000, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 207-239. 3
- Tachibana M, Miyakawa A, Uchida A, Murai M, Eguchi K, Nakamura K, Kubo A, Hata JI: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor expression on human transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Br J Cancer. 1997, 75: 1489-1496.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- Tachibana M, Miyakawa A, Tazaki H, Nakamura K, Kubo A, Hata J, Nishi T, Amano Y: Autocrine growth of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder induced by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Cancer Res. 1995, 55: 3438-3443.PubMed
- Tachibana M, Murai M: G-CSF production in human bladder cancer and its ability to promote autocrine growth: a review. Cytokines Cell Mol Ther. 1998, 4: 113-120.PubMed
- Delnay KM, Stonehill WH, Goldman H, Jukkola AF, Dmochowski RR: Bladder histological changes associated with chronic indwelling urinary catheter. J Urol. 1999, 161: 1106-1108. 10.1097/00005392-199904000-00013.PubMedView Article
- Navon JD, Soliman H, Khonsari F, Ahlering T: Screening cystoscopy and survival of spinal cord injured patients with squamous cell cancer of the bladder. J Urol. 1997, 157: 2109-2111. 10.1097/00005392-199706000-00020.PubMedView Article
- Vaidyanathan S, Hughes PL, Soni BM, Singh G, Mansour P, Sett P: Unpredicted spontaneous extrusion of a renal calculus in an adult male with spina bifida and paraplegia: report of a misdiagnosis. Measures to be taken to reduce urological errors in spinal cord injury patients. BMC Urology. 2001, 1: 3-10.1186/1471-2490-1-3.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2490/2/8/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.