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Table 3 Prospective studies of frequency of complications in studies of child circumcision undertaken by medical providers

From: Complications of circumcision in male neonates, infants and children: a systematic review

Author Country Years Setting N Age Provider Method Indication Follow-up period Frequency of adverse eventsa Frequency of serious adverse eventsb
Ahmed [43, 59] Comoros Islands 1997-1998 Home 3824 2-8 years Surgical aids, nurses & midwifes Dorsal slit Routine 11 days 2.3% 0.5%
Aldemir [48] Turkey 2006 Hospital 200 2-9 years Urologist 65% Smart clamp
35% Dissection
Routine 6 weeks 5% 1%
Bazmamoun [45] Iran 2006-2007 Hospital 394 Mean 9 months Surgeon Sleeve Routine 6 months 7-10%c 0%
Griffiths [49] England 1985 Hospital 99 Mean 4.3 years - Dissection 85% medical
11% religious
4% other
3-5 weeks 6.4%d 2.8%e
Ozdemir [46] Turkey 1990s Mass circ. in hospital 700 8 days to puberty - Forceps guided Routine 3 months 8%f 0%
Schmitz [51] Holland 1997 Health centre 94 Median 3 years GP residents under supervision of a surgeon Freehand Religious 1 week 12% 0%
Schmitz [50] Malaysia 2001 Community 64 Median 10 years Medical assistants supervised by doctors TaraKlamp Routine 6 weeks 1.6% 0%
Sharma [44] India 2003 Hospital 15 2-25 years Surgeons Dorsal slit Medical or religious 90 days 13.3% 0%
Sorensen [52] Denmark 1981-1983 Hospital 43 Mean 6.5 years (range 1-13) Surgeon (early stage in training) Plastibell Medical Mean 29 months Immediate postoperative (reported) 9.3%g
Late complications (reported) 0%h
0%
Subramaniam [47] Singapore - Hospital 152 Mean 7 years Surgeon CO2 laser Not given - 4.6% 0.7%
  1. a Cases of minor bleeding stopped with simple pressure or 'conservative management' and excessive foreskin/inadequate circumcision are not included
  2. b Includes complications defined as 'serious' or 'severe' by authors, or with long-term or life-threatening sequalae (partial amputation of glans, urethral laceration, need for re-surgery or plastic surgery)
  3. c 13 boys had meatal stenosis and 26 had infection. It is not clear whether there is overlap between these two groups.
  4. d Defined by the authors as any admission to hospital or further surgery.
  5. e Acute re-admissions to hospital
  6. f Includes 15 cases of inadequate circumcision, since these were accompanied by secondary phimosis
  7. g One case of haemorrhage that stopped spontanesouly, 2 cases of erythema and pus with no confirmed infection or antibiotic treatment and 24 cases of dysuria due to irritation of the meatus due to the presences of a Plastibell excluded
  8. h Seven cases of slight irritation of the glans excluded