Skip to main content

Table 4 Retrospective studies of frequency of complications in studies of child circumcision undertaken by medical providers

From: Complications of circumcision in male neonates, infants and children: a systematic review

Author Country Years Setting N Age Method used Indication Frequency of adverse eventsa Frequency of serious adverse eventsb
Ahmed [7] Nigeria 1981-1995 Hospital 1563 Mean 4 years - Routine 0.3% -
Atikeler [54] Turkey 1999-2002 Hospital 782 Mean 6 years - Medical indication or religious reasons 2.6% 0%
Cathcart [74] UK 1997-2004 Hospital 66519 0-15 years - 98% Medical 1.2% 0%
Lazarus [53] South Africa 1999-2005 Hospital 95 'boys' - Medical or religious 5.1% 2.5%
Leitch [69] Australia 1960s Hospital 200 Mean 2 years - 71% Medical
29% Cultural
11% 0%
Millar [75] South Africa 1985-1987 Hospital 129 3 months to 10 years Plastibell 19 revisions 12% -
Ozdemir [46] Turkey 1990s Hospital 600 8 days to puberty Forceps guided? Routine 1.7% 0%
Peng [76] China 2005-2007 Hospital 160 5-12 years Shenghu disposable device Mainly medical Complications whilst wearing device : 17.5%c
Complications after removal of device : 0.6%
0.6%
Rizvi [64] Pakistan 1981-1991 Hospital 3096 'children' - - 1.6% -
Wiswell [18] USA 1985-1992 Hospital 476 Mean 3 years Freehand or sleeve Cultural (67%)
Medical (33%)
1.7% 0.2%
Yegane [77] Iran 2002 Community 1766 71% after 2 years of age - - 4.6% overall (late complications)
2.8% Urologists/surgeons
6.1% GPs/pediatricians
9.1% Paramedics
0%
  1. a Cases of minor bleeding stopped with simple pressure or 'conservative management' and excessive foreskin/inadequate circumcision are not included
  2. b Includes complications defined as 'serious' or 'severe' by authors, or with long-term or life-threatening sequalae (partial amputation of glans, urethral laceration, need for re-surgery or plastic surgery)
  3. c Seventy cases of swelling pain from nocturnal erection excluded