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Table 5 Retrospective studies of frequency of complications in studies of child circumcision undertaken by non-medical providers

From: Complications of circumcision in male neonates, infants and children: a systematic review

Author Country Years Setting Number of males Age at circumcision Provider Frequency of adverse eventsa Frequency of serious adverse eventsb
Ahmed [7] Nigeria 1981-1995 Community 1360 (approx) Mean 4 years Traditional 3.4% -
Atikeler [54] Turkey 1999-2002 Community 407 Mean 7 years Traditional 73%c  
Lee [55] Phillipines 2002 Community 114 42% 5-9 years
52% 10-14 years
5% 15-18 years
32% medical
68% traditional
63%d 3.5%
Myers [56] Nigeria - Community 750 Infant/child 68% traditional
25% nurse/midwife
4% doctor
2.8% -
Yegane [77] Iran 2002 Community 1359 71% after 2 years of age Traditional circumcisers 2.7%% (late complications) 0%
  1. a Cases of minor bleeding stopped with simple pressure or 'conservative management' and excessive foreskin/inadequate circumcision are not included
  2. b Includes complications defined as 'serious' or 'severe' by authors, or with long-term or life-threatening sequalae (partial amputation of glans, urethral laceration, need for re-surgery or plastic surgery)
  3. c This very high rate of complications consisted of bleeding (24%), infection (14%), incomplete circumcision (12%), subcutaneous cysts (15%), haematoma (6%), ischaemia (3%), penile adhesion (3%), and other conditions. Of the 97 cases of bleeding, 48 could not be stopped by haemostatic bandage and were sutured. Infections were treated with parenteral or oral antibiotics.
  4. d Of these,94% were reported swollen or inflamed penises. Four respondents (3.5%) of those circumcised) reported profuse bleeding