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Table 6 Frequency of complications in studies of adolescent and adult circumcision

From: Complications of circumcision in male neonates, infants and children: a systematic review

Author Country Years Setting N Age Provider Method Indication Follow-up period Frequency of adverse eventsa Frequency of serious adverse eventsb
Auvert [14] South Africa 2002-2004 GP offices 1495 HIV neg 18-24 years GPs Forceps guided Enrolled in trial 1 month 3.6% -
Auvert [14] South Africa 2002-2004 GP offices 73 HIV positive 18-24 years GPs Forceps guided Enrolled in trial 1 month 8.2% -
Bailey [60] Kenya 2004 Home or community 445 66% aged below 15 years Traditional - Cultural 30-89 days 35% 24%c
Bailey [60] Kenya 2004 Home or community 12   Traditional - Cultural ~3 months 83% 33%d
Bailey [60] Kenya 2004 Hospital, health centre, or private office 562 90% aged below 15 years Cliniciane - Cultural 30-89 days 18%f 19%h
Bailey [60] Kenya 2004 Hospital, health centre, or private office 12 - Clinicianj - Cultural ~3 months 92%e 25%i
Bowa [78] Zambia 2004-2006 Urology outpatient clinic 900 5 months to 96 years Trained clinical officer Dorsal slit method Cultural 8 weeks 3.0% 0.06% at 8 weeks
Kigozi [62] Uganda 2003-2005 Trial operating theatre 2326 HIV neg 15-49 years Trained physician Sleeve method/ Enrolled in trial 6 weeks 7.4% 0.2% severe
3.3% moderate
Kigozi [62] Uganda 2003-2006 Trial operating theatre 420 HIV positive 15-49 years Trained physician Sleeve method/ Enrolled in trial 6 weeks 6.0% 0% severe
(3.1% moderate)
Krieger[61] Kenya 2002-2005 Trial clinic 1475 18-24 years Medical and clinical officers Forceps guided Enrolled in trial 90 days 1.8% 0% severe
(0.7% moderate)
Magoha [79] Nigeria & Kenya 1981-1998 Hospital 249 32% neonates
6% children
61% adolescent/adult
Surgeon Forceps guided 72% Cultural/religious
12% Parental request
16% Medical
- 11% 2.8% severeg
Peltzer[80] South Africa    78 Median 19 years
(range 16-25)
Doctors and nurses following 1 day training   Cultural (Xhosa initiat - 3.8% 0%
  1. a Cases of minor bleeding stopped with simple pressure or 'conservative management' and excessive foreskin/inadequate circumcision are not included
  2. b Includes complications defined as 'serious' or 'severe' by authors, or with long-term or life-threatening sequalae (partial amputation of glans, urethral laceration, need for re-surgery or plastic surgery)
  3. c Wound not healed at 60 days after surgery
  4. d Permanent adverse sequale
  5. e Anyone considered by the participant to be a clinician
  6. f Including an unknown number with residual foreskin
  7. g Includes severe haemorrhage (n = 3), scrotal laceration (n = 2), penile shaft denudation (n = 1) and glandular injury (n = 1).