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Table 1 The association between subepithelial growth patterns and various parameters

From: Clinical significance of subepithelial growth patterns in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Variables Cases (n) Subepithelial growth pattern
    Endophytic growth pattern von Brunn's nests involvement
    Absent Present Present (%) p value Absent Present Present (%) p value
Total   130 90 40 30.8 - 125 5 4.0 -
Age (years)       0.56     0.66
  < 70 55 35 20 36.4   52 3 5.5  
  ≥70 65 45 20 30.8   63 2 3.1  
Gender       0.96     1.00
  M 114 79 35 30.7   109 5 4.4  
  F 16 11 5 31.3   16 0 0.0  
T stage       1.00     0.054
  a 104 72 32 30.8   102 2 1.9  
  1 26 18 8 30.8   23 3 11.5  
Tumor grade (2004 WHO)       0.70     0.006
  PUNLMP 13 10 3 23.1   13 0 0.0  
  LG 84 55 29 34.5   83 1 1.2  
  HG 33 25 8 24.2   25 4 12.1  
Concomitant CIS       0.054     0.26
  absent 123 73 40 35.4   109 4 3.5  
  present 7 7 0 0.0   6 1 14.3  
Lymphovascular involvement       0.94     0.026
  absent 110 76 34 30.9   108 2 1.8  
  present 20 14 6 30.0   17 3 15.0  
Tumor growth pattern       0.023     0.53
(pT1, n = 26) trabecular 17 9 8 47.1   14 3 17.6  
  infiltrative 9 9 0 0.0   9 0 0.0  
Endophytic growth pattern           0.64
  absent 90 - - -   87 3 3.3  
  present 40 - - -   38 2 5.0  
von Brunn's nest involvement       0.64     
  absent 125 87 38 30.4   - - -  
  present 5 3 2 40.0   - - -  
Multiplicity       0.33     0.66
  solitary 70 51 19 27.1   68 2 2.9  
  multiple 60 39 21 35.0   57 3 5.0  
Tumor diameter (cm)       0.17     0.59
  < 3 99 80 28 28.3   96 3 3.0  
  3 ≤ 31 19 12 38.7   29 2 6.5