Representative urodynamic profiles of three groups of rats: a control group (Con), a group that underwent bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx), and a group that underwent bilateral ovariectomy followed by subcutaneous injections of 17β-estradiol (Ovx?+?Est). The contraction interval in the Ovx group was significantly shorter than that in the Con group (P?<?0.05) and was restored to the control value after estrogen treatment (P?<?0.05). Note the increased peak pressures with each voiding contraction in the Ovx group and recovery to the control value in the Ovx?+?Est group. The lower panels denote the means?±?standard errors of the mean of 5 experiments for each condition determined by cystometrogram. *P?<?0.05 vs. control, **P?<?0.05 vs. Ovx.