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Table 1 Patient demographics and clinicopathologic features

From: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic technique in treatment of complex renal stones: 75 cases

Age (y)  
  Mean 47.8
  Range 18-74
Gender  
  Male 30 (71.4)*
  Female 12 (28.6)
Stone size (cm)  
  Mean 2.1
  Range 1.5-3.5
Stone location  
  Left 28 (66.7)
  Right 14 (33.3)
Symptoms  
  Renal colic 30 (71.4)
  No symptoms 12 (28.6)
Hydronephrosis  
  Mild to moderate 32 (76.2)
  Severe 10 (23.8)
Complications  
  Nephroptosis 3 (7.1)
  UPJO 8 (19.0)
  Retrocaval ureter 1 (2.4)
  Aberrant crossing vessels 1 (2.4)
  1. *Data in parentheses are percentages.