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Table 1 Main characteristics of included studies

From: Coffee and caffeine intake and risk of urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis of observational studies

First author, year Country Study design Age Gender Number of cases Number of participants Exposure Adjustments
Bortolotti, 2000 Italy Cross-sectional ≥50 (M)
≥40 (F)
Both 408 2721 (M) / 2767 (F) Coffee Age
Hannestad, 2003 Norway Cross-sectional ≥20 Female 6876 27,936 Coffee Age, BMI and smoking
Jura, 2011 USA Cohort 37 to 79 Female 15,683 65,176 Caffeine Age, cohort, parity, BMI, cigarette smoking, race, diabetes, total fluid intake and physical activity
Tettamanti, 2011 Sweden Cohort 19 to 47 Female / 14,094 Coffee Age, parity, BMI, smoking and educational level
Hirayama, 2012 Japan Case-control 40 to 75 Both 131 683 (M)/298 (F) caffeine Age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol drinking, physical activity level, total fluid intake and presence of co-morbidity
Gleason, 2013 USA Cross-sectional ≥20 Female 1767 4309 Caffeine Age, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, BMI, self-rated health status, major depression, chronic diseases, alcohol use, water intake, total dietary moisture intake and reproductive factors in women including vaginal deliveries
Davis, 2013 USA Cross-sectional ≥20 Male 511 3960 Caffeine Age, race/ethnicity, education, BMI, vigorous activity, poverty-to income ratio, chronic disease, health status, depression, alcohol intake, water intake and total moisture intake