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Table 2 Association between urinary incontinence (independent variable) and loneliness (dependent variable) estimated by logistic regression

From: Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

Characteristic Categories Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Urinary incontinence No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 1.74*** 1.50*** 1.51*** 1.20 1.27* 1.14
   [1.49,2.05] [1.27,1.78] [1.27,1.80] [1.00,1.43] [1.06,1.53] [0.94,1.37]
Age (years) 50–59   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  60–69   0.95 1.03 1.13 1.22** 1.27**
    [0.83,1.08] [0.90,1.17] [0.99,1.30] [1.06,1.41] [1.10,1.46]
  70–79   1.19* 1.30** 1.43*** 1.74*** 1.76***
    [1.01,1.40] [1.10,1.53] [1.20,1.70] [1.46,2.07] [1.47,2.10]
  ≥80   1.46** 1.36* 1.53** 2.05*** 2.06***
    [1.13,1.88] [1.05,1.77] [1.17,1.99] [1.56,2.70] [1.56,2.72]
Sex Male   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Female   1.12* 1.10 0.98 0.92 0.87*
    [1.01,1.24] [1.00,1.22] [0.88,1.08] [0.83,1.03] [0.78,0.98]
Education Primary   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Secondary   0.95 1.03 1.07 1.07 1.08
    [0.82,1.09] [0.89,1.19] [0.92,1.24] [0.92,1.25] [0.93,1.27]
  Tertiary   0.92 1.04 1.11 1.13 1.15
    [0.80,1.07] [0.90,1.21] [0.95,1.29] [0.96,1.32] [0.98,1.35]
Financial strain Never   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Rarely   1.38*** 1.41*** 1.44*** 1.21* 1.24*
    [1.18,1.62] [1.20,1.66] [1.21,1.70] [1.02,1.43] [1.04,1.48]
  Sometimes   1.87*** 1.88*** 1.80*** 1.53*** 1.54***
    [1.63,2.16] [1.63,2.17] [1.55,2.09] [1.32,1.79] [1.32,1.81]
  Often   3.66*** 3.35*** 2.66*** 2.14*** 1.99***
    [3.03,4.42] [2.77,4.06] [2.17,3.26] [1.75,2.61] [1.61,2.45]
Number of None   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Chronic conditions One   1.01 1.04 1.02 1.03 1.02
    [0.86,1.18] [0.89,1.22] [0.87,1.20] [0.87,1.22] [0.87,1.21]
  Two or more   1.24** 1.25** 1.15 1.12 1.08
    [1.07,1.43] [1.07,1.44] [0.99,1.34] [0.96,1.31] [0.93,1.27]
ADL disability No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes   1.14 1.06 0.74** 0.94 0.76*
    [0.93,1.39] [0.87,1.31] [0.59,0.92] [0.75,1.18] [0.60,0.97]
Social Network Mostly isolated    Ref Ref Ref Ref
Index Moderately isolated    0.59*** 0.63** 0.60*** 0.63**
     [0.45,0.77] [0.47,0.83] [0.45,0.80] [0.46,0.84]
  Moderately integrated    0.40*** 0.46*** 0.40*** 0.43***
     [0.31,0.52] [0.35,0.60] [0.30,0.52] [0.32,0.57]
  Most integrated    0.26*** 0.30*** 0.25*** 0.28***
     [0.20,0.34] [0.23,0.40] [0.19,0.33] [0.21,0.37]
Depression (per one-unit increase)     1.10***   1.06***
      [1.09,1.11]   [1.05,1.07]
Anxiety (per one-unit increase)      1.24*** 1.20***
       [1.21,1.26] [1.17,1.22]
  1. Data are odds ratio [95% confidence interval]
  2. Models are adjusted for all the variables in the respective columns
  3. Abbreviation: Ref Reference category, ADL Activities of daily living
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001