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Table 3 Association between frequency of urinary incontinence or activity limitations due to urinary incontinence (independent variables) and loneliness (dependent variable) estimated by logistic regression with no urinary incontinence as the reference category

From: Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

Characteristic Categories Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Frequency of No urinary incontinence Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Urinary incontinence Once a month or less 1.62** 1.50* 1.53* 1.33 1.25 1.21
   [1.20,2.20] [1.08,2.07] [1.09,2.14] [0.94,1.90] [0.88,1.78] [0.85,1.74]
  More than once a month 1.79*** 1.51*** 1.52*** 1.16 1.29* 1.11
   [1.49,2.15] [1.24,1.83] [1.25,1.84] [0.94,1.42] [1.04,1.59] [0.90,1.38]
Activity limitations No urinary incontinence Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Due to urinary No activity limitations 1.53*** 1.36** 1.37** 1.13 1.16 1.06
Incontinence   [1.28,1.84] [1.12,1.64] [1.12,1.67] [0.92,1.39] [0.94,1.43] [0.86,1.32]
  Activity limitations 2.60*** 2.07*** 2.08*** 1.46* 1.71** 1.41
   [1.91,3.55] [1.51,2.84] [1.50,2.88] [1.03,2.05] [1.20,2.45] [0.98,2.04]
  1. Data are odds ratio [95% confidence interval]
  2. Model 1: Unadjusted
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, education, financial strain, number of chronic conditions, and ADL disability
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for variables in Model 2 and the Social Network Index
  5. Model 4: Adjusted for variables in Model 3 and depression
  6. Model 5: Adjusted for variables in Model 3 and anxiety
  7. Model 6: Adjusted for variables in Model 3, depression, and anxiety
  8. Abbreviation: Ref Reference category
  9. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001