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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 1018)

From: Toileting behaviors and overactive bladder in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in China

Variables Mean ± SD or n (%)
Age (years) 59.1 ± 11.7
Sex
 Female 509 (50.0)
 Male 509 (50.0)
Race/ethnicity
 Han 981 (96.4)
 Other 37 (3.6)
Education
 Elementary school or lower 228 (22.4)
 Middle school 232 (22.8)
 High school 306 (30.1)
 College or higher 252 (24.7)
Marital status
 Married 920 (90.4)
 Single/divorced/widowed 98 (9.6)
Living area
 Urban 770 (75.6)
 Rural 248 (24.4)
Income (RMB (USD)/month)
 ≤3000 (451) 620 (60.9)
 >3000 (451) 398 (39.1)
Smoker
 Yes 345 (33.9)
 No 673 (66.1)
Alcohol drinker
 Yes 308 (30.3)
 No 710 (69.7)
Tea drinker
 Yes 732 (71.9)
 No 286 (28.1)
Fluid intake (ml/day)
 ≤2500 546 (53.6)
 >2500 472 (46.4)
Exercise
 Yes 397 (39.0)
 No 621 (61.0)
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) 0.9 ± 0.1
Urinary tract infection history a
 Yes 93 (9.1)
 No 925 (90.9)
Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) 1.7 ± 1.0
Diabetes mellitus duration (years) 9.0 ± 7.4
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy or retinopathy
 Yes 533 (52.4)
 No 485 (47.6)
overactive bladder
 No overactive bladder 878 (86.3)
 Dry overactive bladder 60 (5.9)
 Wet overactive bladder 80 (7.9)
  1. SD standard deviation, RMB Chinese Yuan, USD United States dollar
  2. aPatients with type 2 diabetes who had a urinary tract infection at least one month before the survey