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Table 3 Toileting behaviors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 1018)

From: Toileting behaviors and overactive bladder in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in China

Behavior Never/Rarely Sometimes Often/Always
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Premature voiding    
 Empty bladder with little or no need to urinate before sleep 348 (34.2) 89 (8.7) 581 (57.1)
 Empty bladder with little or no need to urinate before leaving home 412 (40.5) 131 (12.9) 475 (46.7)
 Empty bladder with little or no need to urinate “just in case” 701 (68.9) 132 (13.0) 185 (18.2)
 Empty bladder with little or no need to urinate at home 938 (92.1) 54 (5.3) 26 (2.6)
Place preference for voiding
 Avoid using toilets at someone else’s house 588 (57.8) 63 (6.2) 367 (36.1)
 Worry about cleanness of public toilets 650 (63.9) 104 (10.2) 264 (25.9)
 Avoid using public toilets 690 (67.8) 82 (8.1) 246 (24.2)
 Hold urine until getting home 705 (69.3) 164 (16.1) 149 (14.6)
Delay voiding
 Wait too long (>4 h) to urinate at work 690 (67.8) 172 (16.9) 156 (15.3)
 Delay emptying bladder when busy 572 (56.2) 326 (32.0) 120 (11.8)
 Wait to empty bladder until unable to hold 788 (77.4) 152 (14.9) 78 (7.7)
Straining to void
 Push down or strain to finish emptying bladder 774 (76.0) 108 (10.6) 136 (13.4)
 Push down or strain to begin urinating 883 (86.7) 64 (6.3) 71 (7.0)
 Push down or strain to keep urine flowing 885 (86.9) 68 (6.7) 65 (6.4)
 Push down or strain to empty bladder more quickly 880 (86.4) 80 (7.9) 58 (5.7)