Skip to main content


Fig. 3 | BMC Urology

Fig. 3

From: Kidney stone formers have more renal parenchymal crystals than non-stone formers, particularly in the papilla region

Fig. 3

Comparison of the crystal distribution in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla between stone formers (SFs) and non-stone formers (NSFs). a The existing ratios (number of kidneys with crystal formation/whole kidneys). b The crystal numbers per 100 visual fields (magnification, × 100). Data represent means (standard deviation); *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 indicates statistically significant differences by repeated-measures analysis of variance

Back to article page