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Fig. 4 | BMC Urology

Fig. 4

From: Kidney stone formers have more renal parenchymal crystals than non-stone formers, particularly in the papilla region

Fig. 4

Kidney stone-related gene and protein expressions in stone formers (SFs) and non-stone formers (NSFs). a Immunohistochemistry (magnification, × 100) for osteopontin (OPN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), CD68, and Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP). b mRNA expression levels of the secreted phosphoprotein-1 gene (SPP1), SOD1, CD68, and uromodulin gene (UMOD) detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was used as the internal control. Data represent means (standard deviation). *P < 0.05 indicates statistically significant differences by the Mann-Whitney U-test

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