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Table 1 Reasons for urinary retention. Modified after [18, 25]

From: Burkitt’s lymphoma of the prostate presenting as acute urinary retention: a case report

Reasons for mechanical obstruction
Adenocarcinoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Prostatic, appendiceal abscess
Prostatitis, cystitis, urethritis
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Sarcoma, lymphoma of the prostate
Urolithiasis
Ectopic Ureterocele
Constipation
Urethral valves, strictures
Uterine fibroids or other tumors
Impacted retroverted uterus
Gastrointestinal tumors
Haematocolpos
Cystocele or rectocele
Foreign bodies (external or internal)
Trauma
Phimosis, paraphimosis
Blood clots from bleeding in the bladder or upper urinary tract
Reasons for increased sphincter tone
Neurofibromatosis in the prostate
Anorectal surgery
Fowler’s syndrome
Reasons for interference with sensory or motor innervation to the bladder
Diabetic cystopathy
Herpes zoster in the sacral dermatomes (S2-S4)
Drug-induced
Cauda equina syndrome/Elsberg syndrome/Guillan-Barré syndrome
Psychogenic
Transverse myelitis in Lyme disease