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Table 1 Demographic and clinical parameters in the study

From: Retrospective comparison of three minimally invasive approaches for adrenal tumors: perioperative outcomes of transperitoneal laparoscopic, retroperitoneal laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy

ParametersTransperitoneal LA (TLA), n = 37Retroperitoneal LA (RLA), n = 117RATLA, n = 87papbpc
Age, yr, mean (SD)47.6 ± 12.149.3 ± 12.148.4 ± 14.00.4470.7460.638
Gender   0.2310.8440.188
Male19 (51.4)47 (40.2)43 (49.4)   
Female18 (48.6)70 (59.8)44 (50.6)   
BMI, mean (SD)23.6 ± 2.924.9 ± 3.124.7 ± 3.90.0300.0810.809
ASA score ≥ 325 (67.6)75 (64.1)62 (71.3)0.7000.6810.281
Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 46 (16.2)14 (12.0)19 (21.8)0.6970.4750.058
Side   0.4550.5560.858
Left17 (45.9)62 (53.0)45 (51.7)   
Right20 (54.1)55 (47.0)42 (48.3)   
Tumor size, mm, mean (SD)5.2 ± 2.12.7 ± 1.14.7 ± 2.60.0000.2530.000
Past abdominal surgery5 (13.5)16 (13.7)14 (16.1)0.9800.7150.630
Preop Hb, g/dl, mean (SD)130.8 ± 18.6133.4 ± 15.5135.0 ± 16.70.4000.2090.458
Operative time, min, mean (SD)141.6 ± 47.5129.8 ± 38.8136.1 ± 41.50.1300.5210.268
Estimated blood loss, ml, mean (SD)131.1 ± 204.585.4 ± 88.875.6 ± 95.60.1940.0410.452
Open conversion1 (2.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0.5420.658
Intraoperative transfusions2 (5.4)2 (1.7)3 (3.4)0.5230.9940.736
Postoperative transfusions3 (8.1)2 (1.7)1 (1.1)0.1670.1471.000
Complications
Intraoperative3 (8.1)5 (4.3)3 (3.4)0.6230.5161.000
Postoperative4 (10.8)14 (12.0)6 (6.9)1.0000.7100.229
Clavien 1–24 (10.8)13 (11.1)6 (6.9)   
Clavien 3–40 (0.0)1 (0.9)0 (0.0)   
Hb at discharge, g/dl, mean (SD)116.3 ± 19.4121.7 ± 15.5121.2 ± 16.20.0880.1500.840
Length of stay, d, mean (SD)6.6 ± 2.45.0 ± 3.84.1 ± 1.90.0240.0000.029
Readmission0 (0.0)2 (1.7)2 (2.3)1.0000.8801.000
Tumor histology   1.0001.0000.736
Malignant1 (2.7)2 (1.7)3 (3.4)   
Benign36 (97.3)115 (98.3)84 (96.6)   
Histology type   0.3070.6640.588
Adrenocortical adenoma16 (43.2)64 (54.7)40 (46.0)   
Pheochromocytoma6 (16.2)27 (23.1)18 (20.7)   
Myelolipoma4 (10.8)9 (7.7)13 (14.9)   
Adrenocortical carcinoma1 (2.7)1 (0.7)1 (1.1)   
Metastasis0 (1.0)1 (0.7)1 (1.1)   
Others10 (27.0)15 (12.8)14 (16.1)   
  1. Data are n (%) unless indicated
  2. a Transperitoneal LA vs Retroperitoneal LA
  3. b Transperitoneal LA vs RATLA
  4. c Retroperitoneal LA vs RATLA