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Table 1 Main characteristic of the included studies

From: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy in the treatment of upper urinary tract stones: a meta-analysis comparing clinical efficacy and safety

Reference, year Nation primary site Study design Surgical technique Sample size Age (year) Sex
(M/F)
Stone burden Stone side
Mean ± SD Median ± range (Mean ± SD) Median ± range (left / right)
Aboutaleb, 2012 [9] Kuwait Lower calyx CS PCNL 19 45.33 ± 14.30 14/5 17.30 ± 3.30 ND
fURL 13 47.20 ± 15.20 7/6 14.50 ± 3.20 ND
Armagan, 2015 [10] Turkey Kidney CS mPCNL 68 43.60 ± 18.90 35/33 13.70 ± 4.20 ND
fURL 59 49.30 ± 15.30 36/23 14.40 ± 3.10 ND
Bozkur, 2011 [11] Turkey Lower calyx CS PCNL 42 47.40 ± 15.50 25/17 1.70 ± 0.12 20/22
fURL 37 41.20 ± 13.60 21/16 1.65 ± 0.69 19/18
Chung, 2008 [12] America Kidney CS PCNL 15 58.00a 40/60 1.80 (1.0–2.0) 60/40
fURL 12 58.50a 58/42 1.25 (1.0–1.9) 58/42
Ferroud, 2011 [13] French Kidney CS mPCNL 101 51.70 ± 16.10 80/21 8.90 ± 2.70 ND
fURL 43 49.20 ± 14.80 28/15 8.50 ± 3.20 ND
Gu, 2013 [14] China Upper ureter RCT mPCNL 30 42.50 ± 10.10 17/13 17.27a 16/14
fURL 29 44.22 ± 13.00 18/11 16.23a 12/17
Hu, 2016 [15] China ureter CS mPCNL 104 65.50 ± 4.90 56/48 15.80 ± 3.40 53/51
fURL 80 65.10 ± 5.20 45/35 15.80 ± 3.40 47/33
Kirac, 2013 [16] Turkey Lower calyx CS mPCNL 37 41.02 ± 10.30 25/12 10.50 ± 2.20 16/22
fURL 36 37.80 ± 8.70 22/14 10.20 ± 2.90 14/22
Kruck, 2013 [17] Germany Kidney CS mPCNL 172 53.30 ± 14.80 109/63 12.60 ± 9.50 ND
fURL 108 50.00 ± 16.70 69/39 6.80 ± 6.90 ND
Kumar, 2015 [18] India Lower calyx RCT mPCNL 41 33.70 ± 1.60 20/21 13.30a 22/19
fURL 43 33.40 ± 1.40 20/23 13.10a 22/21
Lee, 2015 [6] Korea Kidney RCT mPCNL 35 59.30 ± 13.30 28/7 39.10a 21/14
fURL 33 55.80 ± 11.20 28/5 28.90a 23/10
Ozgor, 2016 [19] Turkey Kidney CS mPCNL 56 51.40 ± 14.30 25/31 19.50 ± 3.90 25/31
fURL 56 54.20 ± 10.60 22/34 18.30 ± 3.20 37/19
Ozgor, 2018 [20] Turkey Kidney CS mPCNL 58 66.90 ± 5.90 28/30 20.30 ± 5.60 ND
fURL 60 67.70 ± 6.70 33/27 19.00 ± 4.50 ND
Pan, 2013 [21] China Kidney CS mPCNL 59 49.37 ± 14.20 36/20 22.37 ± 2.70 23/36
fURL 56 49.32 ± 13.70 37/22 22.28 ± 2.60 30/26
Sabnis, 2012 [22] India Kidney CS mPCNL 32 44.48 ± 12.36 19/13 1.52 ± 0.33 10/22
fURL 32 49.28 ± 12.19 25/7 1.42 ± 0.34 16/16
Sabnis, 2013 [23] India Kidney RCT mPCNL 35 38.60 ± 14.60 22/13 11.00a 16/19
fURL 35 43.70 ± 12.10 24/11 10.40a 18/17
Schoenthaler,2015 [24] Germany Kidney CS UMP 30 54.30 (19–72) 17/13 15.10 (10–20) ND
fURL 30 56.30 (18–76) ND 14.40 (10–20) ND
Wilhelm, 2015 [25] Germany Kidney CS UMP 25 51.56 (15–75) 15/10 19.28 (10–35) ND
fURL 25 51.36 (19–77) 19/6 19.20 (10–35) ND
Zhang, 2014 [26] China Upper ureter CS mPCNL 32 42.70 ± 13.60 24/8 15.60 ± 2.50 ND
fURL 44 43.30 ± 11.00 29/15 14.90 ± 2.30 ND
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial, CS cohort study, PCNL percutaneous nephrolithotomy, mPCNL minipercutaneous nephrolithotomy, fURL flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy, ND not demonstrated
  2. aNo SD or range was demonstrated in primary studies