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Table 1 Cox proportional hazards regression for RFS

From: Effect of diabetes mellitus and glycemic control on the prognosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a retrospective study

  Whole cohort (a) DM subgroup (b)
Univariate Multivariate Univariate
  HR 95.0% CI P HR 95.0% CI P HR 95.0% CI P
Age 0.86 0.59 1.25 0.415       0.94 0.84 1.06 0.306
Sex 1.94 1.14 3.30 0.014* 1.66 0.71 3.88 0.245 4.13 0.98 17.44 0.054
Smoking 1.34 0.91 1.96 0.136 0.84 0.46 1.52 0.558 3.438 0.311 38.06 0.314
BMI > 24 kg/m2 1.1 0.75 1.62 0.610       1.61 0.65 3.98 0.301
Hypertension 0.74 0.51 1.08 0.113 1.12 0.60 2.06 0.726 0.67 0.25 1.77 0.418
Cre > 1.5 mg/dL 1.03 0.60 1.77 0.921       1.04 0.42 2.56 0.936
Dialysis 0.88 0.28 2.78 0.831       1.57 0.21 11.7 0.658
History of other cancers 0.71 0.36 1.41 0.335       0.63 0.15 2.69 0.536
cT1 2.14 1.47 3.12 < 0.001* 2.05 1.06 3.97 0.034* 1.83 0.87 3.86 0.112
CIS 1.58 1.03 2.41 0.036* 0.69 0.34 1.39 0.297 1.34 0.6 2.96 0.476
High grade 1.72 1.14 2.58 0.010* 0.85 0.43 1.68 0.643 1.45 0.61 3.42 0.400
Tumor number ≥ 3 2.49 1.58 3.94 < 0.001* 3.46 1.90 6.33 < 0.001* 0.99 0.41 2.41 0.982
Tumor size ≥3 cm 1.94 1.12 3.36 0.018* 1.90 1.05 3.42 0.033* 1.94 0.64 5.83 0.239
Intravesical therapy 0.97 0.36 2.64 0.958       21.8 < 0.01 >  11.00 0.790
DM 1.3 0.85 2.00 0.229 1.11 0.57 2.19 0.755      
Urine sugar ≥100            1.86 0.87 3.97 0.108
HbA1c ≥7            3.64 1.14 11.65 0.029*
Metformin            1.36 0.60 3.10 0.460
TZD            0.26 0.04 1.90 0.184
  1. a. Whole cohort: Male sex, T1 stage, CIS, high grade, tumor number ≥ 3, and tumor size ≥3 were associated with higher recurrence in univariate analysis. T1 stage, tumor number ≥ 3, and tumor size ≥3 were independent risk factors for recurrence in multivariate analysis
  2. b. DM subgroup: HbA1c ≥7 was associated with higher risk of recurrence
  3. CI confidence interval, CIS carcinoma in situ, DM diabetes mellitus; HR hazard ratio, RFS recurrence-free survival, TZDs thiazolidinedione; * P < 0.05