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Table 3 Age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia by body mass index (BMI) across the life-course; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

From: Body size throughout the life-course and incident benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and nocturia

   < 25 25–29  ≥ 30 Per 5 kg/m2 increase p-trenda
RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Baseline BMI          
Nocturiab 1.00 Referent 1.07 0.96, 1.18 1.25 1.11, 1.40 1.11 1.06, 1.16  < 0.0001
No. of cases 363 763 389    
Physician Diagnosisb 1.00 Referent 1.00 0.90, 1.11 0.95 0.84, 1.07 0.97 0.92, 1.02 0.26
No. of cases 377 748 321    
Finasterideb 1.00 Referent 1.07 0.71, 1.61 1.44 0.91, 2.27 1.17 0.96, 1.42 0.11
No. of cases 32 67 40    
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccc 1.00 Referent 1.13 1.07, 1.21 1.10 1.02, 1.19 1.04 1.01, 1.07 0.017
No. of cases 604 1351 544    
Elevated PSAd 1.00 Referent 0.89 0.80, 0.99 0.75 0.65, 0.85 0.86 0.81, 0.92  < 0.0001
No. of cases 381 682 259    
BMI at age 20       
Nocturiab 1.00 Referent 1.09 0.99, 1.20 1.20 0.93, 1.55 1.08 1.01, 1.16 0.026
No. of cases 1124 353 38    
Physician diagnosisb 1.00 Referent 0.98 0.88, 1.09 0.88 0.64, 1.22 0.98 0.91, 1.05 0.57
No. of cases 1098 320 28    
Finasterideb 1.00 Referent 1.18 0.81, 1.71 e   1.09 0.86, 1.39 0.49
No. of cases 103 35     
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccc 1.00 Referent 1.05 0.99, 1.11 1.21 1.05, 1.39 1.07 1.03, 1.12 0.0006
No. of cases 1871 566 62    
Elevated PSAd 1.00 Referent 0.98 0.88, 1.10 0.70 0.47, 1.04 0.93 0.86, 1.01 0.074
No. of cases 1006 296 20    
BMI at age 50       
Nocturiab 1.00 Referent 1.07 0.98, 1.18 1.18 1.04, 1.34 1.09 1.03, 1.15 0.0021
No. of cases 480 794 241    
Physician diagnosisb 1.00 Referent 0.92 0.84, 1.01 0.92 0.80, 1.05 0.95 0.93, 1.01 0.13
No. of cases 504 730 212    
Finasterideb 1.00 Referent 1.07 0.73, 1.57 1.49 0.93, 2.41 1.18 0.96, 1.46 0.12
No. of cases 42 70 27    
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccc 1.00 Referent 1.08 1.02, 1.15 1.11 1.02, 1.20 1.05 1.02, 1.09 0.0048
No. of cases 796 1341 362    
Elevated PSAd 1.00 Referent 0.91 0.82, 1.00 0.75 0.64, 0.89 0.85 0.79, 0.90  < 0.0001
No. of cases 476 682 164    
  1. BPH: benign prostatic hyperplasia; CI: Confidence Interval; BMI: body mass index; RR: risk ratio
  2. aFor continuous BMI
  3. bAlso adjusted for time between completion of the baseline and supplemental questionnaires
  4. cAlso adjusted for number of DREs and time between participants’ first and last DRE
  5. dAlso adjusted for number of PSA tests and time between participants’ first and last PSA test
  6. eToo few cases (n = 1) to estimate