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Table 4 Age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia by body mass index (BMI) change across the life-course; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

From: Body size throughout the life-course and incident benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and nocturia

   Baseline BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 25–29  ≥ 30
RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
BMI at 20 (kg/m2)       
 < 25 Nocturiaa 1.00 Referent 1.09 0.98, 1.22 1.28 1.10, 1.47
No. of cases 336 609 179
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccb 1.00 Referent 1.12 1.05, 1.20 1.04 0.94, 1.15
No. of cases 572 1058 241
25–29 Nocturiaa 1.40 1.03, 1.90 1.09 0.93, 1.28 1.25 1.08, 1.45
No. of cases 26 150 177
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccb 0.94 0.73, 1.20 1.16 1.06, 1.26 1.10 1.00, 1.21
No. of cases 31 280 255
 ≥ 30 Nocturiaa c   c   1.41 1.07, 1.86
No. of cases    33
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccb c   1.61 1.32, 1.97 1.25 1.05, 1.48
No. of cases   13 48
BMI at 50 (kg/m2)    
 < 25 Nocturiaa 1.00 Referent 1.09 0.93, 1.28 c  
No. of cases 317 158  
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccb 1.00 Referent 1.07 0.98, 1.18 c  
No. of cases 539 253  
25–29 Nocturiaa 1.04 0.80, 1.34 1.06 0.94, 1.19 1.30 1.13, 1.49
No. of cases 44 561 189
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccb 0.87 0.72, 1.05 1.13 1.06, 1.21 1.06 0.96, 1.17
No. of cases 60 1029 252
 ≥ 30 Nocturiaa c   1.23 0.96, 1.58 1.21 1.05, 1.41
No. of cases   44 195
Prostate volume ≥ 30 ccb c   1.16 1.00, 1.36 1.10 1.00, 1.21
No. of cases   69 288
  1. BPH: benign prostatic hyperplasia; CI: Confidence Interval; BMI: body mass index; RR: risk ratio
  2. aAlso adjusted for time between completion of the baseline and supplemental questionnaires
  3. bAlso adjusted for number of DREs and time between participants’ first and last DRE
  4. cToo few cases (n ≤ 5) to estimate