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Table 5 Age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia by weight change across the life-course; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

From: Body size throughout the life-course and incident benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and nocturia

  Loss > 5 Loss or gain of 5 Gain 5–14 Gain 15–24 Gain 25–34 Gain 35–44 Gain 45–54 Gain 55–64 Gain 65–74 Gain ≥ 75 p-trenda
  RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Weight change from age 20 to baseline (lbs)                  
All participants                  
Nocturiaa 1.15 0.89, 1.48 1.00 Referent 0.96 0.78, 1.18 1.00 0.82, 1.21 1.05 0.87, 1.28 1.08 0.89, 1.32 1.13 0.92, 1.39 1.33 1.07, 1.64 1.16 0.90, 1.49 1.21 0.96, 1.52 0.0028
No. of cases 68 93 183 241 254 219 169 128 67 93  
Prostate volume ≥ 30 cc b 1.09 0.93, 1.28 1.00 Referent 1.11 0.98, 1.25 1.10 0.97, 1.24 1.08 0.95, 1.21 1.14 1.00, 1.28 1.16 1.02, 1.32 1.10 0.96, 1.27 1.13 0.96, 1.32 1.11 0.95, 1.29 0.18
No. of cases 106 155 349 431 428 363 273 170 102 122  
Restricted to those who did not change body mass index category from age 20 to baseline          
Nocturiaa 1.09 0.79, 1.50 1.00 Referent 0.93 0.74, 1.16 1.04 0.83, 1.31 0.94 0.70, 1.25 0.90a 0.64, 1.25          0.97
No. of cases 40 88 134 137 69 51      
Prostate volume ≥ 30 cc b 1.10 0.90, 1.33 1.00 Referent 1.06 0.92, 1.21 1.07 0.93, 1.23 1.02 0.85, 1.22 0.92a 0.75–1.13          0.76
No. of cases 66 147 258 227 121 81      
Weight change from age 50 to baseline (lbs)                  
All participants                  
Nocturia a 1.10 0.89, 1.35 1.00 Referent 0.99 0.89, 1.11 1.17 0.96, 1.42 1.23 0.90, 1.68 1.38 a 1.01, 1.90          0.0039
No. of cases 194 434 456 242 97 92      
Prostate volume ≥ 30 cc b 1.03 0.91, 1.16 1.00 Referent 1.02 0.95, 1.08 1.04 0.92, 1.16 0.93 0.77, 1.14 1.14 a 0.83, 1.01          0.32
No. of cases 310 777 807 373 125 107      
Restricted to those who did not change body mass index category from age 50 to baseline          
Nocturiaa 1.06 0.78, 1.44 1.00 Referent 1.07 0.90, 1.27 1.07a 0.80, 1.42              0.28
No. of cases 85 242 155 37        
Prostate volume ≥ 30 cc b 0.99 0.83, 1.19 1.00 Referent 1.03 0.93, 1.14 1.03a 0.87, 1.23              0.25
No. of cases 146 436 263 55        
  1. aIncludes values of weight gain greater than the upper bound of the weight category