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Table 3 Application, mechanism and peak plasma concentrations for menadione and gemcitabine

From: Repurposing FDA approved drugs as radiosensitizers for treating hypoxic prostate cancer

  Menadione Gemcitabine
Approved application Used in vitamin K deficiency and severe hypoprothrombinemia Treatment of locally advanced or metastatic cancer
Mechanism of action Synthetic vitamin K3. It is also an inhibitor of Siah2 (E3 ubiquitin ligase) ligase activity Inhibition of DNA synthesis and inhibition of enzymes related to deoxynucleotide metabolism
Peak plasma concentration and equivalent in vitro dose 115–407 ng/mL
668.6 ng–2.3 µM
3–6 µg/mL
11.2–22.4 µM
Equivalent in vitro dose 668.6 ng–2.3 µM 11.2–22.4 µM
  1. Reported values for phytomenadione, doses up to 200 mg menadione are tolerated in humans