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Table 1 Demographic characteristic of study population

From: Prevalence of nocturia among community-dwelling adults: a population-based study in Malaysia

Variable Overall (n, %) Mode of questionnaire p value*
Online (n, %) Face-to-Face (n, %)
Total respondents 4616 (100) 4004 (86.7) 612 (13.3)  
Mean age (years ± SD) 38.4 ± 14.58 38.0 ± 14.08 40.9 ± 17.31 0.025φ
 18–30 1794 (38.9) 1573 (39.2) 221 (36.2)  
 31–40 889 (19.3) 835 (20.9) 54 (8.8)  
 41–50 760 (16.5) 692 (17.3) 68 (11.1)  
 51–60 865 (18.7) 664 (16.6) 201 (32.9)  
 > 60 307 (6.7) 240 (6.0) 67 (11.0)  
Sex
 Male 1982 (42.9) 1646 (41.1) 336 (54.9)  < 0.001#
 Female 2634 (57.1) 2358 (58.9) 276 (45.1)  
Race
 Malay 1796 (38.9) 1222 (30.5) 574 (94.1)  < 0.001#
 Chinese 2126 (46.1) 2115 (52.8) 11 (1.8)  
 Indian 595 (12.9) 574 (14.4) 21 (3.4)  
 Others 96 (2.1) 92 (2.3) 4 (0.7)  
Employment status
 Student 920 (19.9) 724 (18.1) 196 (32.0)  < 0.001#
 Employed for wages 2659 (57.4) 2370 (59.2) 280 (45.8)  
 Self-employed 394 (8.5) 319 (8.0) 75 (12.2)  
 Unemployed 652 (14.1) 591 (14.7) 61 (10.0)  
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 638 (13.8) 502 (12.5) 136 (22.2)  < 0.001#
 Diabetes mellitus 524 (11.4) 402 (10.0) 122 (19.9)  < 0.001#
 Renal disease 90 (1.9) 39 (1.0) 51 (8.3)  < 0.001#
 Heart failure 22 (0.5) 16 (0.4) 6 (1.0) 0.052#
 Enlarged prostate 61 (1.3) 59 (1.5) 2 (0.3) 0.021#
 Overactive bladder 141 (3.1) 121 (3.0) 20 (3.3) 0.742#
 Prostate cancer 9 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 1.000ϕ
 Bladder cancer 6 (0.1) 6 (0.1) 0 (0) 1.000ϕ
 Snoring 781 (16.9) 714 (91.4) 67 (11)  < 0.001#
Prevalence of Nocturia 2646 (57.3) 2166 (54.1) 480 (78.4)  < 0.001#
  1. *The statistical significance level was 0.05; φMann–Whitney U test; #Chi-square test; ϕFisher’s Exact test; SD: standard deviation; n = 4616