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Table 2 Demographic characteristic of study population with and without nocturia

From: Prevalence of nocturia among community-dwelling adults: a population-based study in Malaysia

Variable Nocturia (n, %) No nocturia (n, %) p value*
Total respondents 2646 (57.3) 1970 (42.7)  
Mean age (years ± SD) 39.14 ± 14.98 37.33 ± 13.96  < 0.001φ
 18–30 948 (35.8) 846 (43.0)  
 31–40 591 (22.4) 298 (15.1)  
 41–50 366 (13.8) 394 (20.0)  
 51–60 508 (19.2) 357 (18.1)  
 > 60 233 (8.8) 74 (3.8)  
Sex
 Male 1103 (41.7) 879 (44.6) 0.046#
 Female 1543 (58.3) 1091 (55.4)  
Race
 Malay 1239 (46.9) 557 (28.2)  < 0.001#
 Chinese 1087 (41.1) 1039 (52.8)  
 Indian 253 (9.6) 342 (17.4)  
 Others 65 (2.4) 31 (1.6)  
Employment status
 Student 490 (18.5) 430 (21.8) 0.019#
 Employed for wages 1555 (58.8) 1095 (55.6)  
 Self-employed 216 (8.2) 178 (9.0)  
 Unemployed 385 (14.5) 267 (13.6)  
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 500 (18.90) 138 (7.0)  < 0.001#
 Diabetes mellitus 369 (13.95) 155 (7.9)  < 0.001#
 Renal disease 77 (2.91) 13 (0.7)  < 0.001#
 Heart failure 17 (0.64) 5 (0.3) 0.058#
 Enlarged prostate 41 (1.55) 20 (1.0) 0.116#
 Overactive bladder 93 (3.51) 48 (2.4) 0.035#
 Prostate cancer 6 (0.23) 3 (0.2) 0.741ϕ
 Bladder cancer 4 (0.15) 2 (0.1) 1.000ϕ
 Snoring 471 (17.80) 310 (15.7) 0.064#
  1. *The statistical significance level was 0.05; φMann-Whitney U test; #Chi-square test; ϕFisher’s Exact test; SD: standard deviation; n = 4616