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Table 1 Patient demographic, preoperative clinical characteristics and renal stone characteristics

From: No staghorn calculi and none/mild hydronephrosis may be risk factors for severe bleeding complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

No. pts (%) Major bleeding complication Mild bleeding complication Severe bleeding complication p
  70 22 48  
Sex (%)     
Male 51 (72.9) 14 (63.6) 37 (77.1) 0.240
Female 19 (27.1) 8 (36.4) 11 (22.9)  
Age (years, mean ± SD) 57.5 (13.7) 59.3 (13.6) 56.7 (13.8) 0.471
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 22.6 (3.1) 21.8 (3.1) 23.0 (3.0) 0.139
Preop creatinine (μmol/L, IQR) 81.5 (67.8–127.5) 83.0 (70.5–163.8) 80.5 (67.0–124.0) 0.494
History of anticoagulation (%) 3 (4.3) 2 (9.1) 1 (2.1) 0.231
Preop clinical (%)     
Pain 44 (62.9) 12 (54.5) 32 (66.7) 0.330
Hematuria 5 (7.1) 1 (4.5) 4 (8.3) 1.000
UTIs 65 (92.9) 20 (90.9) 45 (93.8) 0.646
Preop. comborbidities (%)     
Hypertension 30 (42.9) 12 (54.5) 18 (37.5) 0.181
Diabetes mellitus 11 (15.7) 4 (19.0) 7 (14.6) 0.725
Ischemic heart disease 14 (20.0) 6 (27.3) 8 (16.7) 0.344
Chronic lung disease 6 (8.6) 2 (9.1) 4 (8.3) 1.000
Chronic kidney disease 23 (32.9) 7 (31.8) 16 (33.3) 0.900
At least 1 48 (68.6) 18 (81.8) 30 (62.5) 0.106
Open surgery history (%) 11 (15.7) 6 (27.3) 5 (10.4) 0.088
History of PCNL (%) 11 (15.7) 5 (22.7) 6 (12.5) 0.303
Calculi side (%)     
Lt 40 (57.1) 11 (50.0) 29 (60.4) 0.414
Rt 30 (42.9) 11 (50.0) 19 (39.6)  
Stone count (%)     
Single 20 (28.6) 7 (31.8) 13 (27.1) 0.684
Multiple 50 (71.4) 15 (68.2) 35 (72.9)  
Stone type (%)     
Staghorna 35 (50.0) 16 (72.7) 19 (39.6) 0.010
Others 35 (50.0) 6 (27.3) 29 (60.4)  
peak Hounsfield unit (Hu, IQR) 1095.0 (735.0–1406.0) 1282.0 (723.5–1506.3) 1086.0 (710.0–1334.0) 0.425
Hydronephrosis (%)     
None or mild 50 (71.4) 12 (54.5) 38 (79.2) 0.034
Moderate or severe 20 (28.6) 10 (45.5) 10 (20.8)  
  1. UTIs urinary tract infections, BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range
  2. aAny branched stone occupying more than one portion of the collecting system