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Table 1 Reports of mechanism of intravenous nephrostomy tube misplacement

From: Visualization of the renal vein filled with contrast agent may indicate the renal vein injury during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: two case reports

First author References Original operation Steps: first step Steps: second step Steps: third step Is the guidewire in the vein? When is the vein torn?
Dias-Filho [3] Tuber placement A vein is perforated by a guidewire The injured vein is dilated The catheter is placed inside the vein Yes During dilating at the initial stage of operation
Kotb [8] Tuber placement The silicon catheter passes into a major vein after penetrating the renal parenchymal    The guidewire is not used At the initial stage of operation
Chen [6] PCNL The fascial dilators tear a large vein The sheath directs the catheter inside the vessels   No During dilating at the initial stage of operation
Fu [9] PCNL The dilator sheath injures the renal vein The guidewire perforates into the renal vein and the injured vein is dilatated The catheter is placed inside the vessels Yes During dilating at the initial stage of operation
Mazzucchi [5] PCNL A lesion in a large renal vein branch is caused by the instruments The sheath directs the catheter inside the vessels   No During the fragmentation process
Wang [7] PCNL A lesion in a large renal vein branch is caused by the instruments The sheath directs the catheter inside the vessels   No During the fragmentation process