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Table 25 Studies in the Asia–Pacific region describing the demographic features of patients with GUTB

From: Serologic and urinary characteristics of laboratory-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis at a tertiary hospital in the Philippines

Study (publication year) Age Male-to-female ratio Demographic Genitourinary organs involved (n) Associated comorbidities (%)
Mishra [33] (2020) Mean, 39.15 ± 12.62 y 1:1.21 (24:29) Socioeconomic class: lower (88.7%), middle (9.4%), upper (1.9%) Kidney (33; 18 unilateral, 15 bilateral involvement), ureter (16; 14 lower ureteral stricture, 1 middle ureteral stricture, 1 multiple strictures), bladder (13) History of PTB (20.8%)
Huang [10] (2019) Median, 71 years (range, 33–89 years) 1.85:1 (37:20)   Kidneys (8), kidney and ureter (4), epididymis (3), epididymis and testis (3), kidney and prostate (2), prostate (2), ureter (1), ureter and bladder (1), testis (1), epididymis and testis and prostate (1), scrotum and penis (1), uterus and cervix (1) DM type II (35.1%), chronic renal disease (33.3%), underlying malignancies (hepatocellular, prostate, bladder, cervix, rectum, thyroid gland, lymphoma, and skin) (24.6%), adrenal insufficiency (24.6%), corticosteroid use (21.1%), chronic airway disease (19.3%), liver cirrhosis (17.5%), past history of TB (15.8%), alcoholism (8.8%), and autoimmune disease (3.5%)
Kim [35] (2018) Mean, 52.8 y 1:1.15 (26:30)   Kidney or ureter (39, 69.6%), bladder (16, 28.6%), epididymis or testis (13, 23.2%), uterus or fallopian tubes (5, 8.9%), prostate (4, 7.1%) History of TB (42.9%, PTB 37.5%), CVD (28.6%), immunocompromised state (21.4%), pulmonary disease (10.7%), liver disease (7.1%), DM (5.4%), history of gastrectomy (3.6%)
Cao [36] (2017) Mean, 42.7 ± 13.4 years (range, 12–78 years) 1:1.29 (183:236) Unemployed (24.6%), farmer (21%), civil servant (15.5%), worker (10.7%), retiree 9.1%), student (4.3%), other occupations (14.6%) Left kidney (210, 50.1%), right kidney (171, 40.8%), both (38, 9.1%) History of PTB (20.3%)
Krishnamoorthy [8] (2017) Mean, 35.4 years (range, 11–67 years) 1.4:1 (65:45)   Kidney (70), ureters (30), bladder (18), testis and epididymis (6), prostate (4), penis (1) History of PTB (22.7%), gastrointestinal TB (2.7%)
Ye [37] (2016) Mean, 42.8 ± 14.95 y 1.64:1 (120:73)    Extra-urinary TB (36.3%)
Singh [38] (2013) Third decade of life (63.2%) 1:1.51 (47:70)   Kidney (76; 56 unilateral, 20 bilateral involvement), ureter (32), bladder (20), prostate (4), scrotal swelling (6) Past history of PTB (18.9%)
Chandra [39] (2012) Mean, 37.7 y NA; only males were included Location: hilly region of state (68%), non-hilly region of state (32%)
Occupation: farmer (56%), laborer (20%), shopkeeper (8%), student (8%), unknown (8%)
Socioeconomic status: low (80%)
Urinary bladder (7, 28%), prostate (6, 24%), epididymis (3, 12%), testes (3, 12%), kidney (2, 8%), ureter (2, 8%), scrotum (1, 4%) Previous history of TB (36%), alcoholism (28%), diabetes (12%)
Hsu [40] (2011) Mean, 60.3 ± 16.1 y 1.46:1 (38:26)   Bladder (5), ureter (4), kidney (2), kidney/ureter (1), kidney/ureter/bladder (1), epididymis (3), testis/epididymis (2), testis/epididymis/prostate gland (2), epididymis/prostate gland (1), testis (1), prostate gland (1) 57.8%
Disseminated TB (48.4%), PTB (43.8%), DM (23.4%), malignancy (14.1%), COPD (14.1%), previous TB (12.5%), CVD (12.5%), receiving steroids (12.5%), ESRD (6.3%), liver cirrhosis (4.7%), alcoholism (4.7%)
Lee [17] (2011) Mean, 45.57 ± 12.55 years (range, 19–81 years) 1:1.53 (40:61)   Kidney and/or ureter (80.20%), epididymis and/or testis (14.85%), bladder (3.96%), prostate (0.99%) Past history of PTB (21.8%), intestinal TB (0.99%), spine TB (0.99%)
Karnjanawanichkul [41] (2010) Mode, 31–40 years (range,10–76) 1.3:1 (20:15) Occupation: farmer (34.3%), housewife (20.0%), businessperson (14.3%), government service (14.3%), blue-collar worker (14.3%), and student (2.9%) Kidney (7; 3 bilateral, 3 left, 1 right), ureter (7; 3 bilateral, 1 left, 3 right), bladder (4), testis (3; 1 left, 2 right), kidneys to urethra (2), kidney + bladder (2), ureter + bladder (1), bladder + urethra (1), urethra (1) Active or past history of PTB (34.3%)
Takahashi [42] (2007) Median, 68.5 years (range, 40–90 years) 1:1 (6:6)   Kidney (7), bladder (6), ureter (2) Active PTB (16.7%)
Hsieh [18] (2006) Mean, M: 54.4 years (range, 32–75 years), F: 61.8 years (range, 31–81 years) 1:1.21 (14:17)    History of PTB (25.8%)
Buccholz [43] (2000) Mean, 39.9 ± 17.1 years (7–81 years) 3:1 (41:14)   Kidney (28), bladder (15), ureter (13), testes (5), urethra (1) Active PTB or EPTB on Category I treatment (93%), on Category II (5.4%), on Category III (1.8%), history of EPTB (11%), DM (33%)
Ramanathan [34] (1998) Mean, 38.8 years 1:3.22 (9:29)    History of PTB (43.2%)
Dy [16] (1995) Mean, M: 48.4 ± 17.01 years (range, 21–72), F: 43.3 ± 17.58 years (21–78) 1:2.2 (19:42)   Kidneys (50.8%), kidneys + ureter (4.9%), kidneys + ureter + bladder (1.6%), kidneys + prostate (1.6%), pelvis (8.2%), bladder (1.6%), bladder + ureter (1.6%), epididymis (3.3%), epididymis + testis + vas deferens (1.6%), fallopian tube + peritoneum (1.6%) Active PTB (47.5%), past history of TB (32.8%), hyperuricemia (13.1%), DM (1.6%), HTN (1,6%), DM + HTN (1.6%), hypertensive renal failure (1.6%), liver cirrhosis (1.6%), congestive heart failure (1.6%), myelofibrosis (1.6%), osteoarthritis and prostatic cancer (1.6%), rheumatoid arthritis (1.6%)
Tanchuco [15] (1987) Mean, 39 years (range, 2 to 64) 1.3:1
24:18
   Past history of TB or exposure (28.6%), malnutrition (4.8%), DM (2.4%)
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, DM diabetes mellitus, ESRD end-stage renal disease, F female, HTN hypertension, M male, NA not applicable, PTB pulmonary tuberculosis