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Table 26 Studies in the Asia–Pacific region illustrating the clinical presentation of patients with GUTB

From: Serologic and urinary characteristics of laboratory-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis at a tertiary hospital in the Philippines

Study (publication year) Time from symptom onset to diagnosis Systemic symptoms Genitourinary manifestations
Mishra [33] (2020)   Constitutional symptoms (28.3%) Irritative voiding symptoms (69.8%), hematuria (56.6%), flank pain (56.6%), associated renal failure (13.2%), infertility and hematospermia (5.6%), scrotal mass (1.9%)
Huang [10] (2019) Median, 4 m (range, 0.5–50 m) 75.4%
Fever (56.1%), malaise/fatigue (36.8), weight loss (31.6%), night sweats (8.8%)
71.9%
Gross hematuria (40.4%), frequency/urgency (33.3%), dysuria (29.8%), flank pain (26.3%)
Kim [35] (2018)   Nonspecific symptoms (fever, anorexia, weight loss, sweating, weakness, peripheral lymphadenopathy) (12.5%) Urinary frequency or dysuria, urethral pain, or irritable voiding symptoms (55.4%); loin or abdominal pain (42.9%); gross hematuria (33.9%); scrotal pain/mass (19.6%); abscess or fistula (5.4%); vaginal bleeding (3.6%)
Cao [36] (2017)   Constitutional symptoms including weight loss, fever, night sweats, and/or fatigue (38.9%) Lower urinary tract symptoms including frequency, urgency, and odynuria (65.2%); flank pain (37.9%); gross hematuria (26.3%)
Krishnamoorthy [8] (2017)    Loin pain (27.0%), storage symptoms (25.5%), hematuria (12.0%), stone disease (9.1%), palpable mass (8.2%), scrotal sinus (5.5%), infertility (2.7%), gastrointestinal symptoms (2.7%), urosepsis (1.8%), renal failure (1.8%), calcified kidney (0.9%), urinoma (0.9%)
Ye [37] (2016)   Fever (26.4%), night sweat (13.0%), weight loss (10.9%) Urinary irritation (61.1%), lumbago (49.2%)
Singh [38] (2013)   32.6% Irritative voiding symptoms (66.47%), hematuria (47.6%), flank pain (33.8%), recurrent urinary tract symptoms (18.9%), scrotal mass (5.1%), colocutaneous fistula (0.8%), nephrocutaneous fistula (1.8%), associated renal failure (14.7%), infertility or hematospermia (3.4%)
Chandra [39] (2012)   Fever and malaise (32.0%) Urgency and increased frequency of micturition (56%), lumbar pain (56%), dysuria (52%), hematuria (44%), pyuria (40%), infertility (12%), renal failure (8%), recurrent abscess (8%), scrotal lump (8%), scrotal sinus (4%)
Hsu [40] (2011) 182.0 ± 311.1 d (range, 5 to 1245 d) 51.6%
Fever (43.8%), fatigue (37.5%), body weight loss (12.5%)
62.5%
Dysuria (31.3%), frequency (31.3%), flank pain (28.1%), hematuria (17.2%), scrotal pain or mass (10.9%)
Lee [17] (2011)   Fever (3.0%) Frequency (40.6%), hematuria (33.7%), dysuria (16.8%), flank pain (16.8%), scrotal swelling (3%)
Karnjanawanichkul [41] (2010)  < 6 m (65.7%), 6–12 m (17.1%), > 1 years (8.6%), uncertain data (8.6%)   Frequency (48.6%), dysuria (42.9%), hematuria (31.4%), abdominal pain or mass (25.7%), urethral pain (20.0%), retention (14.3%), cutaneous fistula (14.3%), renal failure (5.7%)
Takahashi [42] (2007) Median duration; between initial symptoms and clinic visit: 120 d (range, 3–360 d); between clinic visit and diagnosis: 14 d (7–150 d)   Chief complaint: frequency (58.3%), hematuria (25.0%), positive nuclear matrix protein 22 on screening test for bladder cancer (8.3%), incidental right renal tumor (8.3%)
Hsieh [18] (2006) Mean, 2 m (range, 5 d to 18 m) Fever (29.0%), malaise/fatigue (12.9%), night sweats (3.2%), body weight loss (3.2%) Frequency/urgency (61.3%), dysuria (58.1%), flank pain (35.5%), gross hematuria (32.2%), scrotal mass/pain (16.1%)
Buccholz [43] (2000)   Fever (36.0%), lassitude (13.0%), weight loss (13.0%) Dysuria (49%), frequency (40%), flank pain (36%), gross hematuria (31%), urgency (15%), testicular swelling (13%), suprapubic pain (9%), renal colic (1%)
Ramanathan [34] (1998)    Pain (63.6%), hematuria (61.3%), lump (18.2%)
Dy [16] (1995) Mean, M: 30.4 ± 42.09 m (range, 0.25–180), F: 27.8 ± 35.2 m (0.5–168) Fever (29.5%), weight loss (18.0%), chills (9.8%), nausea/vomiting (6.6%), anorexia (6.6%) Dysuria (32.8%), flank pain (27.9%), hematuria (19.6%), hypogastric pain (19.6%), nocturia (19.6%), frequency (18%), edema (14.8%), vaginal spotting (13.1%), costovertebral angle tenderness (11.4%), urgency (9.8%), hesitancy (6.6%)
Tanchuco [15] (1987)   Fever (52.4%), weight loss (26.2%), chills (21.4%), malaise (11.9%), night sweats (2.4%) Dysuria (71.5%), hematuria (62.0%), flank pain (44.5%), turbid urine (47.6%), frequency (40.5%), hypogastric pain 23.8%), edema (4.8%)