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Table 27 Studies in the Asia–Pacific region showing serologic and urinary profiles of patients with GUTB

From: Serologic and urinary characteristics of laboratory-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis at a tertiary hospital in the Philippines

Study (publication year) Hematologic data Biochemistry Urinalysis
Mishra [33] (2020)    Acidic urine (98.1%), sterile pyuria (81.1%), pyuria (69.8%), hematuria (58.4%), alkaline urine (1.9%)
Huang [10] (2019) Anemia (< 10 g/dL) (28.1%), thrombocytopenia (< 150 × 1012/L) (26.3%) Hypoalbuminemia (< 2.5 g/dL) (40.4%) Pyuria + hematuria (29.8%), isolated hematuria (> 30/HPF) (17.5%), isolated pyuria (> 20/HPF) (12.3%)
Kim [35] (2018)    Pyuria (> 5 WBCs/HPF) (66.1%), hematuria (> 2 RBCs/HPF) (50.0%), proteinuria (19.6%)
Cao [36] (2017)    Pyuria (> 5 WBCs/HPF) (56.3%), hematuria (> 3 RBCs/HPF) (48.8%)
Ye [37] (2016) Anemia (15.6%), leukocytosis (13.0%) Increased BUN (23.3%), increased creatinine (20.2%) Hematuria (63.2%), proteinuria (45.6%), pyuria (19.2%)
Singh [38] (2013)    Sterile pyuria (62.4%), hematuria (61.5%), proteinuria (57.4%)
Hsu [40] (2011) Anemia (Hb < 12 g/dL) (46.9%), leukocytosis (WBC > 10,000/µL) (17.2%) Hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3.5 g/dL) (37.5%), renal function impairment (Cr > 1.5 mg/dL) (18.8%), liver function impairment (ALT > 40 IU/L) (17.2%) Pyuria or hematuria (WBC > 10/HPF, × 400; RBC > 5/HPF, × 400) (64.1%), aseptic pyuria (53.1%)
Lee [17] (2011)    Proteinuria (57.4%), hematuria (51.5%), pyuria (42.4%)
Karnjanawanichkul [41] (2010)    Acidic urine with pyuria (80.0%)
Hsieh [18] (2006) Anemia (Hb < 12 g/dL) (25.8%), leukocytosis (WBC > 10,000/µL) (25.8%), leukopenia (WBC < 4000/µL) (0%) Poor renal function (Cr > 1.5 mg/dL) (58.1%), poor liver function (ALT > 40 IU/L) (16.1%), hyperkalemia (K+  > 5.5 meq/L) (3.2%) Pyuria + hematuria (51.6%), pyuria (WBC > 10/HPF; 400x) (25.8%), hematuria (RBC > 5/HPF; 400x) (12.9%)
Buccholz [43] (2000)    Pyuria (56%), hematuria (36%), sterile pyuria (6%)
Dy [16] (1995)    Hematuria (37.7%), proteinuria (32.8%), pyuria + bacteriuria (32.8%), sterile pyuria (26.2%), pyuria (8.2%), sterile pyuria + bacteriuria (3.3%), cylindruria (13.1%)
Tanchuco [15] (1987) Anemia Hb < 12 g/dL (60.0%), leukocytosis (WBC > 10,000/µL) (37.0%) Creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min (75.0%), elevated BUN (> 0.53 mmol/L) (38.9%), elevated serum Cr (> 176.8 mmol/L) (35.1%) Alkaline urine (pH ≥ 6) (88.9%), pyuria (WBC ≥ 6/HPF) (82.4%), hematuria (RBC ≥ 6/HPF) (61.8%), albuminuria of 2 + or more (55.8%)
  1. ALT alanine aminotransferase, Cr serum creatinine, Hb hemoglobin, HPF high-power field, RBC red blood cell, WBC white blood cell