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Table 3 Intra-operative complications of URS

From: Comparison of ureteroscopy (URS) complementary treatment after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy failure with primary URS lithotripsy with holmium laser treatment for proximal ureteral stones larger than10mm

Complications Group 1 (n = 160), n (%) Group 2 (n = 180), n (%) p value
Intra-operative complications 109 (68.1) 52 (28.9) < 0.05
Satava I (Observation) 56 (35.0) 20 (11.1) < 0.05
Bleeding nearly no effect to URS operation 29 (18.1) 10 (5.6) < 0.05
Mucosal tears 6 (3.8) 2 (1.1) 0.107
Stones less than 6 mm migration Renal pelvis 21 (13.1) 8 (4.4) 0.004
Satava II (requiring endoscopic retreatment) 52 (32.5) 32 (17.8) 0.001
Mucosal injury (A false intramural route formation) 3 (1.9) 1 (0.6) 0.269
Bleeding making the surgical field invisible 12 (7.5) 4 (2.2) 0.020
Inability to reach stone requiring secondary URS 1 (0.6) 2 (1.1) 0.544
Residual fragments larger than 6 mm 10 (6.3) 9 (5.0) 0.395
Stones larger than 6 mm migration renal pelvis requiring flexible URS 24 (15.0) 15 (8.3) 0.040
Ureteral perforation requiring percutaneous nephrostomy 2 (1.3) 1 (0.6) 0.456
Satava III (requiring open surgery) 1(0.6) 0 0.471
Urethral stricture 0 (0) 0  
Ureteral avulsion 0 (0) 0  
  1. URS ureteroscopy, UTI urinary tract infection