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Table 1 Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses of patients with stricture recurrence after balloon dilation for stricture

From: A nomogram to predict stricture-free survival in patients with ureteral stricture after balloon dilation

Variable Univariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis
  HR 95% CI P value HR 95% CI P value
Nature of strictures     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Benignant 1(ref)    1(ref)   
 Malignant 2.558 1.617–4.046  < 0.001 3.044 2.457–3.771  < 0.001
M–S hydronephrosis    0.017    
 No 1(ref)      
 Yes 1.657 1.090–2.519 0.018    
Urinary nitrite (NIT)    0.020    0.041
 Negative 1(ref)    1(ref)   
 Positive 2.146 1.195–3.853 0.011 1.915 1.489–2.461  < 0.001
Urinary culture bacteria    0.043    
 Negative 1(ref)      
 Positive 1.882 1.064–3.327 0.030    
CKD    0.001    0.005
 1 1(ref)    < 0.001 1(ref)   
 2 1.140 0.523–2.487 0.742 1.015 0.734–1.398 0.936
 3 2.055 0.953–4.432 0.066 1.460 0.966–2.206 0.006
 4 2.458 0.947–6.384 0.065 1.561 1.135–2.148 0.072
 5 5.021 1.975–12.764 0.001 4.120 2.806–6.049  < 0.001
Urine leukocyte    0.035    
 Negative 1(ref)      
 Positive 1.722 1.007–2.945 0.047    
Approach    0.028    
 Retrgrade 1(ref)   0.028    
 Antegrade 2.414 0.981–5.941 0.055    
Location of stenosis    0.194    
 Proximal 1(ref)   0.224    
 Mid 0.592 0.325–1.080 0.087    
 Distal 0.854 0.535–1.363 0.508    
Balloon size    0.044    0.029
 F18 1(ref)   0.035 1(ref)   
 F21 0.677 0.235–1.953 0.471 0.943 0.606–1.469 0.796
 F24 0.654 0.230–1.859 0.426 0.888 0.577–1.367 0.590
 F30 1.273 0.448–3.613 0.650 1.814 1.164–2.827 0.008
Dilatation time    0.026    
 < 5 min 1(ref)   0.034    
 5–10 min 0.573 0.324–1.014 0.056    
 > 10 min 1.340 0.802–2.239 0.263    
Operation side per patient    0.504    
 Left 1(ref)      
 Right 0.873 0.586–1.301 0.504    
Stent retention time     < 0.001     < 0.001
  < 3 months 1(ref)    < 0.001 1(ref)   
 3–6 months 0.996 0.584–1.700 0.989 1.13 0.902–1.416 0.289
  > 6 months 3.302 2.015–5.412  < 0.001 3.043 2.455–3.772  < 0.001
Stent retention number    0.291    
 1 1(ref)      
 2 1.243 0.829–1.864 0.293    
  1. M–S hydronephrosis moderate severe hydronephrosis, CKD chronic kidney disease, CI confidence intervals