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Table 1 Comparison of patients and stone characteristics according to the impacted stones and non-impacted stones

From: Development and validation of a preoperative nomogram for predicting patients with impacted ureteral stone: a retrospective analysis

Variable Development group (n = 214) Validation group (n = 82) P value
  Impacted (n = 82) Non-impacted (n = 132) Impacted (n = 32) Non-impacted (n = 50)  
Gender (%)      0.203
 Male 49 (59.8) 73 (55.3) 19 (59.3) 21 (42.0)  
 Female 33 (40.2) 59 (44.7) 13 (40.6) 29 (58.0)  
Mean (SD) age, year 58.85 (12.34) 45.12 (12.78) 57.72 (12.19) 46.39 (12.92) 0.655
Hypertension (%)      0.267
 Yes 29 (35.3) 40 (30.3) 8 (25.0) 13 (26.0)  
 No 53 (64.6) 92 (69.7) 24 (75.0) 37 (74.0)  
Diabetes (%)      0.803
 Yes 8 (9.8) 15 (11.3) 3 (9.4) 5 (10.0)  
 No 74 (90.2) 117 (88.6) 29 (90.6) 45 (90.0)  
Ipsilateral stone treatment history (%)      0.885
 Yes 50 (61.0) 20 (15.2) 18 (56.3) 8 (16.0)  
 No 32 (39.0) 112 (84.8) 14 (43.8) 42 (84.0)  
Stone side (%)      0.543
 Right 37 (45.1) 68 (51.5) 19 (59.4) 18 (36.0)  
 Left 45 (54.9) 64 (48.5) 13 (40.6) 32 (64.0)  
Stone location (%)      0.707
 Proximal ureter 40 (48.8) 69 (52.3) 14 (43.8) 24 (48.0)  
 Middle ureter 18 (22.0) 21 (15.9) 8 (25.0) 10 (20.0)  
 Distal ureter 24 (29.3) 42 (31.8) 10 (31.3) 16 (32.0)  
Hydronephrosis (%)      
 NO or mild 4 (4.9) 89 (67.4) 1 (3.1) 29 (58.0) 0.252
 Moderate 41 (50.0) 39 (29.5) 13 (40.6) 19 (38.0)  
 Severe 37 (45.1) 4 (3.0) 18 (56.3) 2 (4.0)  
Mean (SD)      
 Maximum diameter of stone, mm 8.67(2.28) 7.17(2.75) 8.52(2.54) 7.32(2.69) 0.872
 Maximum cross-sectional area of the stone, mm2 43.83(23.65) 31.14(23.64) 41.53(25.12) 32.97(25.06) 0.619
 Stone volume, mm3 386.20(296.60) 253.04(296.29) 373.57(292.37) 265.13(292.71) 0.335
 Stone density, HU 847.66(282.39) 698.65(325.50) 858.92(281.87) 688.27(326.29) 0.329
 UWT max, mm 4.15(0.94) 2.58(0.76) 4.08(0.82) 2.53(0.78) 0.913
Percussion tenderness over kidney region (%)      
 Positive 18 (22.0) 8 (6.1) 12 (37.5) 3 (6.0) 0.356
 Weak positive 54 (65.9) 75 (56.8) 15 (46.9) 29 (58.0)  
 Negative 10 (12.2) 49 (37.1) 5 (15.6) 18 (36.0)  
Stone-free rate 89.0% (73) 97.7% (129) 87.5% (28) 98.0% (49) 0.871