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Table 2 Approach to preoperative evaluations for anterior urethral strictures and surgery-related experience of Chinese urologists

From: Diagnosis and treatment of anterior urethral strictures in China: an internet-based survey

  No. of urologists Percentage, %
Treatment strategy Reconstructive ladder treatment strategya 965 76.2
Performance of a primary
Urethroplastyb if indicated
302 23.8
What methods do you usually use to diagnose anterior urethral strictures? (multiple choice) Uroflowmetry 680 53.7
Postvoid residual urine 548 43.3
Urethroscopy 1076 84.9
Urethrography 1143 90.2
Urethral ultrasound 127 10.0
Trial catheterization 699 55.2
Trial urethral dilation 762 60.1
Other 23 1.8
Which of the following procedures have you performed in the last year? (multiple-choice) Urethral dilation 1170 92.3
Internal urethrotomy 762 60.1
Urethral anastomosis 573 45.2
Skin-flap urethroplasty 189 14.9
Free-graft urethroplasty 157 12.4
Endourethral stent 136 10.7
Perineal urethrostomy 142 11.2
Urethral realignment 548 43.3
Urethral meatotomy 427 33.7
Other 11 0.9
No. of urethroplasties 0 384 30.3
1–5 595 47.0
6–10 175 13.8
11–20 53 4.2
 > 20 60 4.7
Greatest concern when performing urethroplasty Major hemorrhage during the operation 187 14.8
Difficulty obtaining samples from the oral mucosa 281 22.2
Trauma during oral mucous membrane sampling 135 10.7
Difficulty obtaining genital skin flap from an 260 20.5
unclear dissection 614 48.5
Influencing sexual function 306 24.2
Postoperative infection 632 49.9
Urethral restenosis 1167 92.1
Other 36 2.8
  1. aReconstructive ladder strategy Starting with minimally invasive procedures (including dilatation/urethrotomy) and only considering open urethroplasty after failure of the initial approach
  2. bUrethroplasty Urethral anastomosis, skin-flap urethroplasty, free-graft urethroplasty, urethral traction, perineal urethrostomy, urethral realignment, urethral meatotomy