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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients whose stones were located ≤ 30 mm from the UPJ

From: Cost-effectiveness of anti-retropulsive devices varies according to the locations of proximal ureteral stones: a retrospective cohort study

  Type of procedure p value
URS URS + ARD
All patients. no 25 14  
Gender, no. Male/Female 12/13 7/7 1.000
Age, years, mean ± SD,
median [range]
49.4 ± 15.9, 48
[22–73]
46.1 ± 11.8, 44.5
[27–65]
0.504
BMI, mean ± SD,
median [range]
23.7 ± 2.9, 23.5
[19.5–31.2]
24.4 ± 3.3, 25.7
[18.0–29.4]
0.478
Hydronephrosis grade, no. Mild/Moderate/Severe 15/7/3 11/3/0 0.317
Stone laterality (L/R), no 10/15 6/8 1.000
Stone size, mean ± SD
median [range]
   
 Length (mm) 10.2 ± 4.0, 10
[5–20]
11.6 ± 4.2, 11
[4–18]
0.298
 Width(mm) 6.6 ± 2.1, 6
[4–10]
8.2 ± 3.3, 7.5
[3–15]
0.069
 Burden (mm2)a 57.5 ± 38.2, 47.1
[15.7–157.0]
82.6 ± 55.3, 65.9
[7.1–176.6]
0.102
 Density (HU) 1129.4 ± 327.5, 1119,
[467–1849]
1268.8 ± 301.0, 1332.5
[619–1643]
0.254
Operation time (min),
mean ± SD, median [range]
40.1 ± 19.0, 42
[12–94]
44.5 ± 25.3, 42.5
[18–82]
0.648
Intraoperation complications 0 0
Postoperative stay (days),
mean ± SD, median [range]
4.0 ± 1.7, 4
[2–8]
3.2 ± 2.1, 2
[1–7]
0.240
Post-fever, no 0 1 0.359
Post-sepsis, no 0 1 0.359
Total expense (¥),
mean ± SD, median [range]
22,693.6 ± 11,528.6, 18,644.5
[11693.0 ± 54,848.0]
23,839.6 ± 5046.9, 23,295.7
[17096.0 ± 33,675.0]
0.729
SFR (%)    
 One-day 80.0 71.4 0.696
 One-month 80.0 78.6 1.000
  1. aStones Burden = Length* width*0.25*3.14