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Table 3 The pooled relationship between various risk factors and any radiographic relapse of kidney stone disease

From: Risk factors for kidney stone disease recurrence: a comprehensive meta-analysis

Risk factors No. of studies No. of patients OR (95% CI) P value Model Heterogeneity
I2 (%) P
Demographic risk factors
Age 6 5,020 0.996 (0.971–1.022) 0.762 Random 79.5 < 0.001§
BMI 9 15,473 1.062 (1.015–1.111) 0.009# Random 63.6 0.005#
Sex 12 16,245 1.128 (0.976–1.305) 0.104 Random 56.6 0.008#
Urinary tract anomalies 2 178 1.098 (0.274–4.405) 0.895 Random 65.8 0.087
Kidney stone-related risk factors
Family history of kidney stones 6 1,692 1.089 (0.966–1.227) 0.162 Fixed 0.0 0.830
Personal history of kidney stones 5 2,506 1.402 (1.239–1.587) < 0.001§ Fixed 0.0 0.426
Diameter of largest kidney stone 4 2,553 1.014 (0.999–1.029) 0.059 Fixed 38.5 0.181
Multiple calculi 4 1,760 1.338 (0.965–1.855) 0.080 Random 80.3 0.002#
Treatment method risk factors
Stone prevention medications 4 2,190 0.674 (0.421–1.079) 0.100 Random 82.6 0.001#
Potassium citrate 3 1733 0.529 (0.221–1.255) 0.148 Random 88.4 < 0.001§
Surgery 2 159 3.178 (1.597–6.322) 0.001# Fixed 0.0 0.951
ESWl 3 1,120 1.825 (0.386–8.615) 0.448 Random 94.1 < 0.001§
24-h urine and serum tests related risk factors
Baseline urine volume 6 1,789 0.934 (0.756–1.154) 0.528 Random 64.0 0.016*
Baseline urine calcium 7 2,413 1.001 (1.000–1.002) 0.224 Fixed 28.4 0.209
Baseline low urine citrate 6 2,232 1.000 (1.000–1.000) 1.000 Fixed 0.0 0.826
Baseline urine oxalate 6 2,232 0.999 (0.993–1.004) 0.690 Fixed 32.7 0.190
Baseline urine sodium 4 1,719 1.001 (0.999–1.002) 0.325 Fixed 0.0 0.563
Baseline urine uric acid 6 2,232 1.000 (0.999–1.001) 0.992 Fixed 51.4 0.069
Baseline urine magnesium 3 1,095 1.081 (0.777–1.503) 0.645 Fixed 0.0 0.780
Baseline urine phosphate 2 422 0.978 (0.315–3.038) 0.969 Random 89.4 0.002#
Baselin urine osmolality 2 855 1.257 (0.629–2.515) 0.517 Random 83.3 0.014*
Serum calcium 2 348 1.033 (0.787–1.356) 0.817 Fixed 0.0 0.790
GFR 2 1,022 1.505 (0.656–3.453) 0.335 Random 95.9 < 0.001§
  1. BMI, body mass index; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence intervals; ESWl, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; GFR, glomerular filtration rate
  2. * P < 0.05, # P < 0.01, §P < 0.001