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Table 1 Demographic, clinical characteristics and perioperative variables of patients who underwent RIRS for lower pole kidney stones

From: External validation of the T.O.HO. score as predictor of success after retrograde intrarenal surgery

  Total
(n = 611)
Successful
(n = 443, 72.5%)
Unsuccessful
(n = 168, 27.5%)
p
Age (years) 46.1 ± 14.2 45.7 ± 14.3 47.1 ± 13.8 0.209 m
Sex     0.671 c
 Male, n (%) 385 (63) 277 (62.5) 108 (64.4)  
 Female, n (%) 226 (37) 166 (37.5) 60 (35.6)  
Stone length (mm) (mean ± SD) 16.3 ± 8.4 14 ± 5.5 22.5 ± 11.2  < 0.001 m
Stone location      < 0.001 c
 Ureter and renal pelvis, n (%) 251 (41.1) 201 (45.4) 50 (30)  
 Middle and upper pole, n (%) 91 (15) 78 (17.6) 14 (8.1)  
 Lower pole, n (%) 269 (43.9) 162 (37) 104 (61.9)  
Stone density (HU) (mean ± SD) 962.1 ± 327.2 914.5 ± 321 1087.3 ± 310.6  < 0.001 m
Stone number     0.097 c
 Single, n (%) 395 (64.7) 295 (66.7) 100 (59.4)  
 Multiple, n (%) 216 (35.3) 148 (33.3) 68 (40.6)  
Lateralization     0.999 c
 Right, n (%) 290 (47.5) 210 (47.5) 80 (47.5)  
 Left, n (%) 321 (52.5) 233 (52.5) 88 (52.5)  
Precence of preoperative stent     0.218 c
 Yes, n (%) 99 (16.2) 77 (17.3) 22 (13.1)  
 No, n (%) 512 (83.8) 366 (82.7) 146 (86.9)  
Precence of hydronephrosis     0.062 c
 Yes, n (%) 358 (58.7) 270 (61) 88 (52.5)  
 No, n (%) 253 (41.3) 173 (39) 80 (47.5)  
Surgical duration (min) (mean ± SD) 54.3 ± 18.3 50.6 ± 16.6 64 ± 19.1  < 0.001 m
Hospitalization (day) (median) (min–max) 1(1–15) 1(1–10) 1(1–15) 0.296 m
T.O.HO. score (mean ± SD) 6.6 ± 1.9 6 ± 1.7 8.1 ± 1.5  < 0.001 m
  1. Bold p values ​​indicate statistical significance
  2. RIRS Retrograd Intrarenal Surgery, HU Houndsfield Unit, SD standard deviation, T.O.HO. (T)allness, (O)ccupied Lession Status, (HO)undsfield Unit Evaluation, m Mann Whitney U Test, c Chi-square Test