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Table 3 Cox proportional hazards analysis of factors associated with prostate cancer-cause specific survival in the pre-USPSTF era (2010–2012)

From: Changes in prostate cancer survival among insured patients in relation to USPSTF screening recommendations

  Sample size no. (%) Adjusted HR (95% CI) p-value
Age
 < 55 16,408 (10.77) 1 (Referent)  
 55–70 91,149 (59.80) 0.946 (0.814–1.101) 0.474
  > 70 44,859 (29.43) 1.555 (1.334–1.811)  < 0.001
Insurance status
 Insured 124,577 (92.64) 1 (Referent)  
 Medicaid 7,351 (5.47) 1.309 (1.157–1.481)  < 0.001
 Uninsured 2,552 (1.90) 1.256 (1.037–1.520) 0.020
Race
 Non-Hispanic White 102,334 (69.09) 1 (Referent)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 23,540 (15.89) 1.072 (0.971–1.183) 0.167
 Hispanic 14,410 (9.73) 0.953 (0.838–1.084) 0.465
 Non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander 7,320 (4.94) 0.654 (0.542–0.789)  < 0.001
 Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskan Native 505 (0.34) 0.982 (0.542–1.777) 0.951
PSA, ng/mL
 ≤ 10 96,214 (74.06) 1 (Referent)  
 10 < PSA ≤ 20 18,271 (14.06) 1.403 (1.221–1.613)  < 0.001
 > 20 15,421 (11.87) 2.280 (2.017–2.578)  < 0.001
Biopsy Gleason Score
 ≤ 6 63,638 (45.81) 1 (Referent)  
 7 51,723 (37.23) 2.036 (1.690–2.452)  < 0.001
 ≥ 8 23,560 (16.96) 5.639 (4.701–6.765)  < 0.001
Stage
 Localized 119,995 (82.09) 1 (Referent)  
 Regional 18,801 (12.86) 2.478 (2.123–2.892)  < 0.001
 Distant 7,384 (5.05) 12.634 (11.286–14.143)  < 0.001
Treatment
 No local therapy 87,246 (57.24) 1 (Referent)  
 Prostatectomy and/or radiotherapy 65,170 (42.76) 0.209 (0.176–0.250)  < 0.001