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Table 4 Cox proportional hazards analysis of factors associated with prostate cancer-cause specific survival in the post-USPSTF era (2014–2016)

From: Changes in prostate cancer survival among insured patients in relation to USPSTF screening recommendations

  Sample size no. (%) Adjusted HR (95% CI) p-value
Age
 < 55 11,843 (9.12) 1 (Referent)  
55–70 79,397 (61.15) 1.235 (0.961–1.587) 0.099
 > 70 38,610 (29.73) 1.973 (1.533–2.540)  < 0.001
Insurance status
 Insured 102,420 (91.45) 1 (Referent)  
 Medicaid 8,084 (7.22) 1.230 (1.040–1.454) 0.015
 Uninsured 1,489 (1.33) 0.946 (0.642–1.394) 0.780
Race
 Non-Hispanic White 84,102 (67.28) 1 (Referent)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 20,939 (16.75) 1.125 (0.974–1.298) 0.108
 Hispanic 12,994 (10.39) 1.006 (0.838–1.208) 0.948
 Non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander 6,505 (5.20) 0.738 (0.571–0.954) 0.020
 Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskan Native 463 (0.37) 1.371 (0.755–2.490) 0.300
PSA, ng/mL
 ≤ 10 74,416 (67.56) 1 (Referent)  
 10 < PSA ≤ 20 18,022 (16.36) 1.239 (1.010–1.519) 0.039
 > 20 17,715 (16.08) 1.985 (1.672–2.358)  < 0.001
Biopsy gleason score
 ≤ 6 41,749 (35.48) 1 (Referent)  
 7 48,907 (41.56) 2.328 (1.648–3.288)  < 0.001
 ≥ 8 27,019 (22.96) 7.023 (5.024–9.815)  < 0.001
Stage
 Localized 94,477 (76.71) 1 (Referent)  
 Regional 18,878 (15.33) 2.497 (1.994–3.127)  < 0.001
 Distant 9,801 (7.96) 11.763 (9.963–13.887)  < 0.001
Treatment
 No local therapy 81,388 (62.68) 1 (Referent)  
 Prostatectomy and/or radiotherapy 48,462 (37.32) 0.201 (0.154–0.263)  < 0.001