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  1. The use of percutaneous needle biopsy in the evaluation of indeterminate renal masses is controversial and its role in management remains largely unclear. We set to establish current practice on this issue in ...

    Authors: Azhar A Khan, Iqbal S Shergill, Sheila Quereshi, Manit Arya, Mohammed T Vandal and Sandeep S Gujral

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:10

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitizat...

    Authors: Carlos Silva, João Silva, Helder Castro, Frederico Reis, Paulo Dinis, António Avelino and Francisco Cruz

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:9

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Congenital mid-ureteral stricture is a rare malformation of the ureter leading to prenatal and neonatal hydronephrosis. Site characterization of the narrowing is important to optimize the surgical approach to ...

    Authors: Milena Brugnara, Mariangela Cecchetto, Riccardo Manfredi, Michele Zuffante, Vassilios Fanos, Angelo Pietrobelli and Marco Zaffanello

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:8

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Tachykinins (TK), such as substance P, and their neurokinin receptors which are ubiquitously expressed in the human urinary tract, represent an endogenous system regulating bladder inflammatory, immune respons...

    Authors: Ricardo Saban, Cindy Simpson, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Sylvie Memet, Igor Dozmorov and Marcia R Saban

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:7

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Identification and characterization of the prostate stem cell is important for understanding normal prostate development and carcinogenesis. The flow cytometry-based side population (SP) technique has been dev...

    Authors: Laura E Pascal, Asa J Oudes, Timothy W Petersen, Young Ah Goo, Laura S Walashek, Lawrence D True and Alvin Y Liu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  6. There is growing evidence that male circumcision (MC) prevents heterosexual acquisition of HIV by males in sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world heavily affected by the HIV pandemic. While there is growi...

    Authors: Adamson S Muula, Hans W Prozesky, Ronald H Mataya and Joseph I Ikechebelu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  7. CD10 is a transmembrane metallo-endopeptidase that cleaves and inactivates a variety of peptide growth factors. Loss of CD10 expression is a common, early event in human prostate cancer; however, CD10 positive...

    Authors: Marc A Dall'Era, Lawrence D True, Andrew F Siegel, Michael P Porter, Tracy M Sherertz and Alvin Y Liu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Urinary incontinence (UI) following radical prostatectomy is a well-recognized risk of the surgery. In most patients post-operative UI improves over time. To date, there is limited objective, quantitative data...

    Authors: Anna R Smither, Michael L Guralnick, Nancy B Davis and William A See

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Scrotal schwannoma is a rare neoplasm and poses a diagnostic challenge to urologists. This article describes a rare case of ancient scrotal schwannoma and reviews the current modality of investigation and trea...

    Authors: Peter T Chan, Sankalp Tripathi, Su E Low and Lee Q Robinson

    Citation: BMC Urology 2007 7:1

    Content type: Case report

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  10. The Bladder cooling reflex (BCR) i.e. uninhibited detrusor contractions evoked by intravesical instillation of cold saline, is a segmental reflex believed to be triggered by menthol sensitive cold receptors in...

    Authors: Gaurav Mukerji, Janet Waters, Iain P Chessell, Chas Bountra, Sanjiv K Agarwal and Praveen Anand

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:31

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Conducted as part of the Urologic Diseases in America project whose aim was to quantify the burden of urologic diseases on the American public, this study focuses on Veterans Health Administration (VHA) users ...

    Authors: Min-Woong Sohn, Huiyuan Zhang, Brent C Taylor, Michael J Fischer, Elizabeth M Yano, Christopher Saigal and Timothy J Wilt

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:30

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Langerhans cell histiocytosis affects mainly young children and features an accumulation of CD1a+ dendritic Langerhans cells in the bone, skin, and other organs. A few cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on...

    Authors: Jun Hagiuda, Munehisa Ueno, Satoshi Ashimine, Isao Kuroda, Keisuke Ishizawa and Nobuhiro Deguchi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:28

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Our understanding of early post-vasectomy recanalization is limited to histopathological studies. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency and to describe semen analysis patterns of early reca...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, Melissa Hays, Mario Chen-Mok, Mark A Barone and David Sokal

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is released into the intraluminal fluid during bladder inflammation in the rat complexed to α1-inhibitor-3 (A1-I3; a rodent proteinase inhibitor in the α-macroglobu...

    Authors: Pedro L Vera and Katherine L Meyer-Siegler

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:24

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Rupture of a renal artery aneurysm (RAA) during pregnancy is a rare event, with a high mortality rate for both mother and fetus. Increased blood flow and intra-abdominal pressure, and vascular changes secondar...

    Authors: Khaled B Soliman, Yaser Shawky, Mohamed M Abbas, Mohamed Ammary and Allaa Shaaban

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:22

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, which have in common the co-expression of muscle and melanocytic immunohistochemical markers.

    Authors: Jeremy R Parfitt, Anthony J Bella, Bret M Wehrli and Jonathan I Izawa

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:20

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) play a major role in the maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis and are involved in the process of tumour invasion and metastasis in sever...

    Authors: Andrea Staack, Steffen Badendieck, Dietmar Schnorr, Stefan A Loening and Klaus Jung

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:19

    Content type: Research article

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  18. It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been rep...

    Authors: Jun Hagiuda, Isao Kuroda, Takuji Tsukamoto, Munehisa Ueno, Chizuko Yokota, Takanori Hirose and Nobuhiro Deguchi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:18

    Content type: Case report

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  19. In spite of excellent cure rates for prostate cancer patients with favorable tumor characteristics, patients with unfavorable characteristics after radical prostatectomy are still at a significantly increased ...

    Authors: Jens Kollermann, Carsten Kempkensteffen, Burkhard Helpap, Mark Schrader, Hans Krause, Markus Muller, Kurt Miller and Martin Schostak

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:15

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) constitutes a major clinical problem. Minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of symptomatic BPH include Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA), but it is unclear what i...

    Authors: Carmen Bouza, Teresa López, Angeles Magro, Lourdes Navalpotro and José María Amate

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  21. With the increasing interest with botulinum toxin – A (BTX-A) application in the lower urinary tract, we investigated the BTX-A effects on the canine prostate and also in men with bladder outlet obstruction (B...

    Authors: Yao-Chi Chuang, Chieh-Hsien Tu, Chao-Cheng Huang, Hsin-Ju Lin, Po-Hui Chiang, Naoki Yoshimura and Michael B Chancellor

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The aim of our study was to review the results of microsurgically performed testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and to evaluate its possible long term effects on serum testosterone (T).

    Authors: Karel Everaert, Ilse De Croo, Wim Kerckhaert, Peter Dekuyper, Marc Dhont, Josiane Van der Elst, Petra De Sutter, Frank Comhaire, Ahmed Mahmoud and Nicolaas Lumen

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:9

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Gene expression profiling has recently shown that the mRNA for CD24 is overexpressed in prostate carcinomas (Pca) compared to benign or normal prostate epithelial tissues. Immunohistochemical studies have repo...

    Authors: M Schostak, H Krause, K Miller, M Schrader, S Weikert, F Christoph, C Kempkensteffen and J Kollermann

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1), provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its pot...

    Authors: Gaurav Mukerji, Yiangos Yiangou, Stacey L Corcoran, Inger S Selmer, Graham D Smith, Christopher D Benham, Chas Bountra, Sanjiv K Agarwal and Praveen Anand

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effec...

    Authors: Fernando Diez-Caballero, Inma Castilla-Cortázar, Maria Garcia-Fernandez, Juan Enrique Puche, Matias Diaz-Sanchez, Amelia Diaz Casares, M Aurelia Aliaga-Montilla, Coronación Rodriguez-Borrajo and Salvador Gonzalez-Barón

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The aim of present study is to investigate the short and long term histopathological alterations caused by submucosal injection of gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen based on an experimental rat model.

    Authors: Murat Alkan, Beril Talim, Arbay O Ciftci, Mehmet E Şenocak, Melda Cağlar and Nebil Büyükpamukçu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Mycotic infections of the bladder produce pain and inflammatory changes. The present study examined the inflammatory and nociceptive effects of the yeast cell wall component, zymosan, when admininstered into t...

    Authors: Alan Randich, Tyler Uzzell, Ronda Cannon and Timothy J Ness

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Neglected renal stones remain a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. They not only result in functional impairment of affected kidney, but also act as an important predisposing factor for developm...

    Authors: Hemendra Navinchandra Shah, Pritesh Jain and Percy Jal Chibber

    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:1

    Content type: Case report

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  29. There are no randomised and properly blinded trials directly comparing one PDE-5 inhibitor with another in a normal home setting. Valid indirect comparisons with a common comparator must examine equivalent dos...

    Authors: R Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry and Henry J McQuay

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Stromal mesenchyme cells play an important role in epithelial differentiation and likely in cancer as well. Induction of epithelial differentiation is organ-specific, and the genes responsible could be identif...

    Authors: Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Laura E Pascal, Kelsey D Worthington, Robert L Vessella, Lawrence D True and Alvin Y Liu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  31. One of the rare complications of ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy is pouch-to-intestine fistula. There isn't a classic method to intraoperative diagnosis of small fistula.

    Authors: Abbas Basiri, Emadoddin Mo'oudi, Hamed Akhavizadegan and Naser ShakhsSalim

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:16

    Content type: Technical advance

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  32. Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), causatively linked to cervical cancer, might also play a role in the development of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the polymorphism at codon 72 (encoding...

    Authors: Gustavo J Leiros, Silvia R Galliano, Mario E Sember, Tomas Kahn, Elisabeth Schwarz and Kumiko Eiguchi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Bladder distention is commonly used in diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). Traditionally performed in the operating room under general or spinal anesthesia (GA), it is expensive and associat...

    Authors: Amy E Rose, Kathryn J Azevedo and Christopher K Payne

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:14

    Content type: Research article

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  34. N-acetyltransferase 2 is phase II metabolizing enzyme that participates in the bioconversion of heterocyclic arylamines into electrophilic nitrenium ions, which are important ultimate carcinogens that are dire...

    Authors: Daya SL Srivastava and Rama D Mittal

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  35. We examined toe-spreading ability in subjects with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) to test the hypothesis that subjects with CPPS could have deficiencies in lower extremity functions innervated by sacral s...

    Authors: Ugur Yilmaz, Ivan Rothman, Marcia A Ciol, Claire C Yang and Richard E Berger

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Simple ligation of the vas with suture material and excision of a small vas segment is believed to be the most common vasectomy occlusion technique performed in low-resource settings. Ligation and excision (LE...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, John Pile, David Sokal, Ramachandra CM Kaza, Mizanur Rahman, SS Bodh, Jeewan Bhattarai, Ganesh D Bhatt and Tika Man Vaidya

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:10

    Content type: Research article

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