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  1. Germline BRCA2 mutation is associated with an aggressive prostate cancer phenotype and indicates higher risk for hereditary cancer. Recently, numerous studies have attempted to identify the genomic landscape of p...

    Authors: Lijuan Jiang, Zunguang Bai, Shoulun Zhu, Tingting Zhao, Yining Yang, Zhiyong Li, Dong Chen, Zhiming Wu, Yanjun Wang, Fangjian Zhou and Yonghong Li
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:114
  2. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) on bladder function via prostate-to-bladder cross-sensitization in a rat model of lipop...

    Authors: Ozgu Aydogdu, Pinar Uyar Gocun, Patrik Aronsson, Thomas Carlsson and Michael Winder
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:113
  3. Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common solid organ cancer. However, there is still no definite consensus before and after organ transplantation (TPL). We aimed to analyze whether PC incidence increased in TPL...

    Authors: Hyung Ho Lee, Jae Young Joung and Sung Han Kim
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:112
  4. Cancer is often associated with a hypercoagulable state and new thrombosis is often the first clinical manifestation of cancer. Surgical treatment of the primary tumor is crucial since it provides the only cur...

    Authors: Benedikt Martin, Andreas Greinacher, Robin Bülow, Fabian Hammer, Andreas Hoene, Martin Burchardt and Uwe Zimmermann
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:111
  5. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare urological cancer that is still an important public health concern in many areas around the world. Although UTUC has been linked to a number of risk factors, t...

    Authors: Ahmed Soualhi, Elke Rammant, Gincy George, Beth Russell, Deborah Enting, Rajesh Nair, Mieke Van Hemelrijck and Cecilia Bosco
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:110
  6.  Hunner’s interstitial cystitis (HIC) is a complex disorder characterized by pelvic pain, disrupted urine storage, and Hunner lesions seen on cystoscopy. There are few effective diagnostic biomarkers. In the p...

    Authors: Kaining Lu, Shan Wei, Zhengyi Wang, Kerong Wu, Junhui Jiang, Zejun Yan and Yue Cheng
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:109
  7. To explore the risk factors for severe bleeding complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) according to the modified Clavien scoring system.

    Authors: Xue Dong, Dongnv Wang, Huangqi Zhang, Shuzong You, Wenting Pan, Peipei Pang, Chaoqian Chen, Hongjie Hu and Wenbin Ji
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:107
  8. The optimal management of clinical T4 (cT4) prostate cancer (PC) is still uncertain. At our institution, carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for nonmetastatic PC, including tumors invading the bladder, has been pe...

    Authors: Yuhei Miyasaka, Hidemasa Kawamura, Hiro Sato, Nobuteru Kubo, Tatsuji Mizukami, Hiroshi Matsui, Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Kazuto Ito, Takashi Nakano, Kazuhiro Suzuki and Tatsuya Ohno
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:106
  9. Intravenous misplacement of a nephrostomy tube is a rare complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or percutaneous nephrostomy. The mechanism of misplacement of a nephrostomy tube into the vascular s...

    Authors: Xiao-Feng Chen, Jian-Jun Zhou, Jian-Ming Sun, Guo-Can Cao, Yi-Hua Zou and Wang-Long Deng
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:105
  10. Recently, renal angioembolization (RAE) has gained an important role in the non-operative management (NOM) of moderate to high-grade blunt renal injuries (BRI), but its use remains heterogeneous. The aim of th...

    Authors: Giovanni Liguori, Giacomo Rebez, Alessandro Larcher, Michele Rizzo, Tommaso Cai, Carlo Trombetta and Andrea Salonia
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:104
  11. Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a severe fibrotic disease of the tunica albuginea that causes penis curvature and leads to penile pain, deformity, and erectile dysfunction. The role of pericytes in the pathogenesis...

    Authors: Guo Nan Yin, Shuguang Piao, Zhiyong Liu, Lei Wang, Jiyeon Ock, Mi-Hye Kwon, Do-Kyun Kim, Yong Song Gho, Jun-Kyu Suh and Ji-Kan Ryu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:103
  12. Recent increased use of medical images induces further burden of their interpretation for physicians. A plain X-ray is a low-cost examination that has low-dose radiation exposure and high availability, althoug...

    Authors: Masaki Kobayashi, Junichiro Ishioka, Yoh Matsuoka, Yuichi Fukuda, Yusuke Kohno, Keizo Kawano, Shinji Morimoto, Rie Muta, Motohiro Fujiwara, Naoko Kawamura, Tetsuo Okuno, Soichiro Yoshida, Minato Yokoyama, Rumi Suda, Ryota Saiki, Kenji Suzuki…
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:102
  13. Ureteroenteric stricture incidence has been reported as high as 20% after urinary diversion. Many patients have undergone prior radiotherapy for prostate, urothelial, colorectal, or gynecologic malignancy. We ...

    Authors: Clinton T. Yeaman, Andrew Winkelman, Kimberly Maciolek, Mei Tuong, Perri Nelson, Chandler Morris, Stephen Culp, Sumit Isharwal and Tracey L. Krupski
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:101
  14. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a frequently occurring condition among women and increases with age. Effective treatments exist but many women hesitate to contact their general practitioner (GP) regarding UI. The...

    Authors: Dorte Ejg Jarbøl, Peter Fentz Haastrup, Sanne Rasmussen, Jens Søndergaaard and Kirubakaran Balasubramaniam
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:99
  15. The incidence of prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients (RTR) is similar to the general population. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the standard of care in the management of clinically localized cancer, ...

    Authors: Kun Sirisopana, Pocharapong Jenjitranant, Premsant Sangkum, Kittinut Kijvikai, Suthep Pacharatakul, Charoen Leenanupunth, Wachira Kochakarn and Wisoot Kongchareonsombat
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:97
  16. The presence of hypoxia is a poor prognostic factor in prostate cancer and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment promotes radioresistance. There is potential for drug radiotherapy combinations to improve the ther...

    Authors: Becky A. S. Bibby, Niluja Thiruthaneeswaran, Lingjian Yang, Ronnie R. Pereira, Elisabet More, Darragh G. McArt, Paul O’Reilly, Robert G. Bristow, Kaye J. Williams, Ananya Choudhury and Catharine M. L. West
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:96
  17. Nocturia is widely prevalent condition with detrimental effects on quality of life and general health. In Malaysia, there is a lack of up-to-date prevalence study on nocturia. This study aimed to investigate t...

    Authors: Hui-Yin Yow, John Jeh Lung Tiong, Chun-Wai Mai, Esther van der Werf, Zulkifli Md Zainuddin, Charng-Chee Toh, Kay-Seong Ngoo, Eng-Hong Goh, Ahmad Nazran Fadzli, Sze-Han Lok and Teng-Aik Ong
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:95
  18. Chronic catheterization remains the only attractive option in specific circumstances, especially in neurologically impaired patients. Complications produced by the indwelling catheters, like patulous urethra a...

    Authors: Athanasios Zachariou, Minas Paschopoulos, Aris Kaltsas, Fotios Dimitriadis, Athanasios Zikopoulos, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Atsushi Takenaka and Nikolaos Sofikitis
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:93

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Urology 2022 22:36

  19. Wilms’ tumor (nephroblastoma) is mostly unilateral; however, bilateral Wilms’ tumors are seen in about 5–8% of patients. This can be synchronous or metachronous. It is uncommon to get liver metastasis from bil...

    Authors: Senai Goitom Sereke, Abdirahman Omar Sahal, Vincent Mboizi and Felix Bongomin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:91
  20. Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most frequent malignancy of the urinary system. The aim of this study was to identify key microRNAs (miRNAs) and hub genes associated with BC as well as analyse their targeted...

    Authors: Hongjian Wu, Wubing Jiang, Guanghua Ji, Rong Xu, Gaobo Zhou and Hongyuan Yu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:90
  21. Intra-operative cell salvage (IOCS) and leukocyte-depleted filter (LDF) are widely used and effective in saving blood. However, the safety issue concerning reinfusion of IOCS–LDF processed blood to renal cell ...

    Authors: Xiaoqing Zhang, Xiangyang Guo, Yanan Zong, Chuanya Xu, Jilian Wang, Bin Zhang, Chang Liu, Yueqing Gong, Lixiang Xue, Lulin Ma, Shudong Zhang, Yi Li and Hong Zeng
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:89
  22. Benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a leading cause of morbidity in men over the age of 40. This study examined whether there was an association between body mass in...

    Authors: Ken Batai, Michael Phung, Robert Bell, Aye Lwin, Kieran A. Hynes, Elinora Price, Karleen M. Meiklejohn, Erika R. Bracamonte and Joel T. Funk
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:88
  23. Kaposi’s sarcoma is an uncommon complication in renal transplant patients, and typically presents with cutaneous lesions on the lower extremities. Penile involvement has been reported only rarely. Management o...

    Authors: Matthew A. Anderson, Tracey Ying, Kate Wyburn, Peter M. Ferguson, Madeleine C. Strach, Peter Grimison, Steve Chadban and David M. Gracey
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:87
  24. Ureteral obturator hernia is a rare condition, usually found accidentally during imaging examinations, or found during surgery. Ureteral hernia can easily lead to ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Long-...

    Authors: Yongqiang Hong, Siyu Zhang, Xiuying Kong, Yuxin Zhang, Shaokun Hong and Yuedong Chen
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:86
  25. Recent reports show that the pre-operative or post-operative skeletal mass index (sarcopenia) affects survival rates for various cancers; however, the link between prostate cancer survival and sarcopenia is un...

    Authors: Won Tae Kim, Ho Won Kang, Sung Pil Seo, Yong-June Kim, Sang Cheol Lee, Wun-Jae Kim, Bum Sang Cho, Yun Sok Ha, Tae Gyun Kwon, Jinsung Park, Seung Chol Park, Young Beom Jeong, Taek Won Kang, Sung-Woo Park and Seok Joong Yun
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:85
  26. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) metastasizes in approximately 20–30% cases. The most common sites for metastases are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. Metastases of RCC in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are ver...

    Authors: Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar, Nasir Ud Din, Ramin Saadaat and Zubair Ahmad
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:84
  27. To investigate the role of mpMRI and high PIRADS score as independent triggers in the qualification of patients with ISUP 1 prostate cancer on biopsy to radical prostatectomy.

    Authors: Łukasz Nyk, Omar Tayara, Tomasz Ząbkowski, Piotr Kryst, Aneta Andrychowicz and Wojciech Malewski
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:82
  28. To examine one-year trajectories of urinary and sexual outcomes, and correlates of these trajectories, among prostate cancer patients treated by radical prostatectomy (RP).

    Authors: Lin Yang, Jung Ae Lee, Emily Heer, Claire Pernar, Graham A. Colditz, Ratna Pakpahan, Kellie R. Imm, Eric H. Kim, Robert L. Grubb III, Kathleen Y. Wolin, Adam S. Kibel and Siobhan Sutcliffe
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:81
  29. Machine learning has many attractive theoretic properties, specifically, the ability to handle non predefined relations. Additionally, studies have validated the clinical utility of mpMRI for the detection and...

    Authors: Shuanbao Yu, Jin Tao, Biao Dong, Yafeng Fan, Haopeng Du, Haotian Deng, Jinshan Cui, Guodong Hong and Xuepei Zhang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:80
  30. Air pockets between the lithotripter head and body surface are almost inevitably generated when applying a handful of gel onto the contact portion of the treatment head and that on the patient’s skin during co...

    Authors: Chien-Sheng Wang, Ching-Chia Li, Wen-Jeng Wu, Wen-Chin Liou, Yusen Eason Lin and Wei-Chuan Chen
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:79
  31. An accurate prediction model could identify high-risk subjects of incident Overactive bladder (OAB) among the general population and enable early prevention which may save on the related medical costs. However...

    Authors: Satoshi Funada, Yan Luo, Takashi Yoshioka, Kazuya Setoh, Yasuharu Tabara, Hiromitsu Negoro, Shusuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshimura, Fumihiko Matsuda, Toshi A. Furukawa, Orestis Efthimiou and Osamu Ogawa
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:78
  32. Bulbar urethral stricture is a common cause for urinary symptoms in men and its two main treatment options both have drawbacks with little evidence on their relative cost-effectiveness. Current guidelines on t...

    Authors: Jing Shen, Luke Vale, Beatriz Goulao, Paul Whybrow, Stephen Payne and Nick Watkin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:76
  33. There has been a limited number of reports on the significance and risk factors of urethrovesical anastomotic urinary leakage (AUL) following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We aimed to analyze th...

    Authors: Shigenori Kakutani, Yuta Takeshima, Yuta Yamada, Tetsuya Fujimura, Shoichi Nagamoto, Yutaka Enomoto, Yuji Hakozaki, Naoki Kimura, Taro Teshima, Yoshiyuki Akiyama, Yusuke Sato, Taketo Kawai, Daisuke Yamada and Haruki Kume
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:75
  34. To analyze the risk factors of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and urosepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for upper urinary tract stones and to develop a nomogram to predict postoperative uro...

    Authors: Jun Liu, Qingya Yang, Jiayi Lan, Yang Hong, Xiaobo Huang and Bo Yang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:74
  35. Simultaneous urothelial cancer manifestation in the lower and upper urinary tract affects approximately 2% of patients. Data on the surgical benchmarks and mid-term oncological outcomes of enbloc robot-assiste...

    Authors: Stephan Buse, Assen Alexandrov, Elio Mazzone, Alexandre Mottrie and Axel Haferkamp
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:73
  36. Flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is used to treat urinary tract calculi, but postoperative complications include shivering, fever and infection. To investigate the effects of irrigation fluid t...

    Authors: Yue He, You-Gang Feng, Jun He, Bo Liang, Ming-Dong Jiang, Jun Liu, Yong-Ming Kang, Li-Ping Ma, Qin Zhang, Qi-Jia Peng, Tao Yang, Yao Liu, Li Luo and Min Zhang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:72
  37. To investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection therapy for vesicoureteral reflux in post-pubertal patients with dilated ureteral orifice via modified hydrodistension implantation techniques.

    Authors: Tetsuji Maruyama, Kentaro Mizuno, Hidenori Nishio, Taiki Kato, Takashi Hamakawa, Yosuke Ikegami, Takahiro Yasui and Yutaro Hayashi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:70
  38. Male factor is the major contributor in roughly half of infertility cases. Genetic factors account for 10–15% of male infertility. Microdeletions of azoospermia factors (AZF) on the Yq region are the second mo...

    Authors: Hassan Osman Alhassan Elsaid, Tarteel Gadkareim, Tagwa Abobakr, Eiman Mubarak, Mehad A. Abdelrhem, Dalya Abu, Elsir Abu Alhassan and Hind Abushama
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:69
  39. Due to the invasiveness of prostate biopsy, a prediction model of the individual risk of a positive biopsy result could be helpful to guide clinical decision-making. Most existing models are based on transrect...

    Authors: Yuliang Chen, Zhien Zhou, Yi Zhou, Xingcheng Wu, Yu Xiao, Zhigang Ji, Hanzhong Li and Weigang Yan
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:68
  40. MRI is playing an increasing role in risk stratification and non-invasive diagnosis of the undifferentiated small renal mass. This study was designed to assess the reliability of MRI in diagnostic evaluation o...

    Authors: Suresh de Silva, Kathleen Rebecca Lockhart, Peter Aslan, Peter Nash, Anthony Hutton, David Malouf, Dominic Lee, Paul Cozzi, Fiona MacLean and James Thompson
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:67
  41. This study aimed to introduce a novel method for ureteroileal anastomosis, explore its clinical effectiveness, observe the incidence of postoperative anastomotic stricture, and compare the postoperative compli...

    Authors: Qi Wang, Liang Tang, Liangkuan Bi, Jie Min, Lu Fang, Wei Sun and Dexin Yu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:65

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