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  1. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is the second most common genitourinary malignancy. Because of the low sensitivity of urinary cytology and the invasiveness and expense of frequent cystoscopies...

    Authors: Reza Yahyazadeh, Davood Bashash, Parisa Ghaffari, Saeid Kord, Ava Safaroghli-Azar and Seyed H. Ghaffari
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:64
  2. Primary Seminal Vesicle (SV) tumours are a rare entity, with most SV masses representing invasion of the SV by malignancy originating in an adjacent organ, most often the prostate. Previously reported primary ...

    Authors: B. Heijkoop, D. Bolton, D. Katz, Andrew Ryan, J. Epstein and S. Appu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:62
  3. While the resistance rates of commonly detected uropathogens are well described, those of less frequent Gram-negative uropathogenic bacteria have seldom been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the ...

    Authors: Jan Hrbacek, Pavel Cermak and Roman Zachoval
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:61
  4. CD276 is an immune checkpoint molecule. Elevated CD276 expression by urothelial carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about its expression across different tumor stages. We therefore...

    Authors: Wilhelm K. Aicher, M. Korn, L. Reitnauer, F. B. Maurer, J. Hennenlotter, P. C. Black, T. Todenhofer, J. Bedke and A. Stenzl
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:60
  5. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perioperative parameters associated with bladder neck contracture (BNC) after transurethral surgery of the prostate and to compare the incidence of BNC after...

    Authors: Yi-Zhong Chen, Wun-Rong Lin, Yung-Chiong Chow, Wei-Kung Tsai, Marcelo Chen and Allen W. Chiu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:59
  6. Long-term use of urethral catheters is associated with high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) and blockage. Microbial biofilms are a common cause of catheter blockage, reducing their lifetime and significa...

    Authors: Florian H. H. Brill, Julia Hambach, Christian Utpatel, Diana C. Mogrovejo, Henrik Gabriel, Jan-Hendrik Klock, Joerg Steinmann and Andreas Arndt
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:58
  7. Intermittent catheterization (IC) is a common medical technique to drain urine from the bladder when this is no longer possible by natural means. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standard of car...

    Authors: Almuth Angermund, Gary Inglese, Jimena Goldstine, Laura Iserloh and Berit Libutzki
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:57
  8. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is an inflammatory condition of the kidney and its treatment most often involves a combination of antibiotics and nephrectomy. This study aimed to define the clinical f...

    Authors: A. Artiles-Medina, I. Laso-García, J. Lorca-Álvaro, M. Mata-Alcaraz, G. Duque-Ruiz, M. Hevia-Palacios, F. Arias-Funez and F. J. Burgos-Revilla
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:56
  9. Hydronephrosis (HN) is the most common abnormality detected on prenatal ultrasound. This study sought to stratify outcomes of patients by severity of prenatal HN with postnatal outcomes.

    Authors: Zoë G. Baker, Arthi Hannallah, Melissa Trabold, Danielle Estell, Cherry Deng, Andy Y. Chang, S. Scott Sparks, Roger De Filippo and Evalynn Vasquez
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:54
  10. Severe hypercalcemia is often associated with uncontrolled malignancy through several mechanisms. However, calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia is a rare etiology for advanced solid tumors.

    Authors: Kai Johnson, Majd Issa, Anish Parikh, Paul Monk, Ming Yin, Amir Mortazavi and Yuanquan Yang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:51
  11. to describe the methodology of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy and the anatomy of the area of the verumontanum, and to determine the safety of this procedure, especially in terms of postoperative complicat...

    Authors: Wei-Kang Chen, Dong-Dong Yu, Zhi-Xia Chen, Peng-Fei Li, Jian Cai, Yu-Peng Liu and Zhi-Gang Wu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:48
  12. Existing evidence suggests that there is an association between body size and prevalent Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia. However, there is limited evidence on the association betw...

    Authors: Saira Khan, K. Y. Wolin, R. Pakpahan, R. L. Grubb, G. A. Colditz, L. Ragard, J. Mabie, B. N. Breyer, G. L. Andriole and S. Sutcliffe
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:47
  13. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones are considered to be highly resistant to chemolysis. While significant organic matter has been identified within these stones, which is presumed to bind (inorganic) CaOx particles...

    Authors: Adi Adelman, Yaniv Shilo, Jonathan Modai, Dan Leibovici, Ishai Dror and Brian Berkowitz
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:46
  14. The advantages of photodynamic diagnostic technology using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDD) have been established. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the usefulness of ALA-PDD to diagnose ...

    Authors: Koichiro Wada, Motoo Araki, Ryuta Tanimoto, Takuya Sadahira, Shogo Watari, Yuki Maruyama, Yosuke Mitsui, Hirochika Nakajima, Herik Acosta, Satoshi Katayama, Takehiro Iwata, Shingo Nishimura, Atsushi Takamoto, Tomoko Sako, Kohei Edamura, Yasuyuki Kobayashi…
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:45
  15. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a high dose cranberry proanthocyanidin extract for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Authors: Asma Babar, Lynne Moore, Vicky Leblanc, Stéphanie Dudonné, Yves Desjardins, Simone Lemieux, Valérie Bochard, Denis Guyonnet and Sylvie Dodin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:44
  16. Inflammatory response biomarkers have been studied as promising prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma, but few studies have focused on papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). This study was performed to ev...

    Authors: Zhilei Zhang, Yongbo Yu, Jilu Zheng, Mingxin Zhang and Haitao Niu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:43
  17. Studies have shown that immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have limited efficacy and can even increase tumour burden in short time periods. This is usually called hyperprogressive disease (HPD). To date, ther...

    Authors: Chao Liu, Jingjing Piao and Zhiyang Shang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:42
  18. Overactive bladder is a heterogenous condition with poorly characterized clinical phenotypes. To discover potential patient subtypes in patients with overactive bladder (OAB), we used consensus clustering of t...

    Authors: James Gross, Joel M. Vetter and H. Henry Lai
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:41
  19. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play multiple roles in human cancers through regulating mRNAs and distinct pathways. This paper focused on the functions of miR-4429 in prostate cancer (PCa) ...

    Authors: Jinguo Wang, Sheng Xie, Jun Liu, Tao Li, Wanrong Wang and Ziping Xie
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:40
  20. Contemporary studies have discredited the methods used to exclude urinary tract infection (UTI) when treating overactive bladder (OAB). Thus we must revisit the OAB phenotype to check that UTI has not been ove...

    Authors: Kiren Gill, Harry Horsley, Sheela Swamy, Rajvinder Khasriya and James Malone-Lee
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:39
  21. Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed types of cancers worldwide. In its initial period, the tumor is hormone-sensitive, but in advanced states, it evolves into a metastatic castration-resist...

    Authors: Martha E. Cancino-Marentes, Georgina Hernández-Flores, Pablo Cesar Ortiz-Lazareno, María Martha Villaseñor-García, Eduardo Orozco-Alonso, Erick Sierra-Díaz, Raúl Antonio Solís-Martínez, Claudia Carolina Cruz-Gálvez and Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:38
  22. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has become an effective therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) who do not respond to conservative treatment. However, an effective treatment strategy for ...

    Authors: Shan Chen, Siyou Wang, Yunqiu Gao, Xiaolian Lu, Jiasheng Yan, Lihua Xuan and Shenhong Wang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:37
  23. WW Domain Containing Oxidoreductase (WWOX) belongs to the unusual tumor suppressors, whose molecular function is not fully understood in bladder cancer, especially regarding interaction with Activator Protein 2 (...

    Authors: Żaneta Kałuzińska, Damian Kołat, Katarzyna Kośla, Magdalena Orzechowska, Andrzej K. Bednarek and Elżbieta Płuciennik
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:36
  24. Infection is the most feared complication of a penile prosthesis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is widely known to increase the risk of several infections, but its role in the penile prosthesis is still controversial...

    Authors: Lucas Mira Gon, Caio César Citatini de Campos, Brunno Raphael Iamashita Voris, Luís Augusto Passeri, Adriano Fregonesi and Cássio Luís Zanettini Riccetto
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:35
  25. Circumcisions are among the most frequent operations in children. Health service data on circumcision in the United States has documented an increase in neonatal circumcisions since 2012. We investigated wheth...

    Authors: Christina Oetzmann von Sochaczewski, Jan Gödeke and Oliver J. Muensterer
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:34
  26. The R.I.R.S. scoring system is defined as a novel and straightforward scoring system that uses the main parameters (kidney stone density, inferior pole stones, stone burden, and renal infundibular length) to i...

    Authors: Cong Wang, ShouTong Wang, Xuemei Wang and Jun Lu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:33
  27. Double J ureteral stents are widely used on urological patients to provide drainage of the upper urinary tract. Unfourtunately, ureteral stents are not free from complications, as bacterial colonization and re...

    Authors: Federico Soria, Julia E. de La Cruz, Juan Pablo Caballero-Romeu, Manuel Pamplona, Daniel Pérez-Fentes, Luis Resel-Folskerma and Francisco M. Sanchez-Margallo
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:32
  28. This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of preoperative blood parameters in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and tumour thrombus (TT) patients that were surgically treated.

    Authors: Ruotao Xiao, Chuxiao Xu, Wei He, Lei Liu, Hongxian Zhang, Cheng Liu and Lulin Ma
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:31
  29. The present study was performed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (ITMB) in terms of treating early postoperative pain in adult patients who underwent robotic-assist...

    Authors: Jung-Woo Shim, Yun Jeong Cho, Hyong Woo Moon, Jaesik Park, Hyung Mook Lee, Yong-Suk Kim, Young Eun Moon, Sang Hyun Hong and Min Suk Chae
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:30
  30. To compare clinical intra and early postoperative outcomes between conventional Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate using the Virtual Basket tool (VB...

    Authors: Giorgio Bozzini, Matteo Maltagliati, Umberto Besana, Lorenzo Berti, Albert Calori, Maria Chiara Sighinolfi, Salvatore Micali, Jean Baptiste Roche, Ali Gozen, Alexander Mueller, Dimitry Pushkar, Evangelos Liatsikos, Marco Boldini, Carlo Buizza and Bernardo Rocco
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:28
  31. The urinary stone and urinary tract infection (UTI) are invariably associated and are frequent causes of morbidity. Date on burden of UTI among urinary stone patients is lacking in Ethiopia. This study was aim...

    Authors: Desie Kasew, Setegn Eshetie, Abeje Diress, Zerubabiel Tegegne and Feleke Moges
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:27
  32. A history of prior cancer commonly results in exclusion from cancer clinical trials. However, whether a prior cancer history has an adversely impact on clinical outcomes for patients with advanced prostate can...

    Authors: Yechen Wu, Xi Chen, Duocheng Qian, Wei Wang, Yiping Zhang, Jinxin Hu, Jun Zhu, Qiang Wu and Tinghu Cao
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:26
  33. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the new flow cytometer UF-5000 with the UF-1000i and Gram staining for determining bacterial patterns in urine samples.

    Authors: Stephen Shei-Dei Yang, Chun-Chun Yang, Yi-Sheng Chen and Shang-Jen Chang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:24
  34. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an HIV prevention strategy recommended to partially protect men from heterosexually acquired HIV. From 2015 to 2019, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...

    Authors: Todd Lucas, Jonas Z. Hines, Julia Samuelson, Timothy Hargreave, Stephanie M. Davis, Ian Fellows, Amber Prainito, D. Heather Watts, Valerian Kiggundu, Anne G. Thomas, Onkemetse Conrad Ntsuape, Kunle Dare, Elijah Odoyo-June, Leonard Soo, Likabelo Toti-Mokoteli, Robert Manda…
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:23
  35. Ureteral fibro-epithelial polyp (UFP) is a rare benign ureteral tumor, and surgical removal of the polyps is still the preferred solution. Although many cases have reported polyps extending to the bladder, our...

    Authors: Zhi-Wei Sun, Jian-Kang Ge, You Wu and Ye-Qing Huang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:22
  36. To compare the functional and oncological outcomes between innovative “three-port” and traditional “four-port” laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).

    Authors: Ben Xu, Si-da Cheng, Yi-ji Peng and Qian Zhang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:21
  37. In May 2012 the US Preventive Task Force issued a ‘D’ recommendation against routine PSA-based early detection of prostate cancer. This recommendation was implemented progressively in our health system. The ai...

    Authors: Tarek Ajami, Jaime Durruty, Claudia Mercader, Leonardo Rodriguez, Maria J. Ribal, Antonio Alcaraz and Antoni Vilaseca
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:20
  38. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chun Feng, Ping-Ping Lv, Chang-Chang Huang, Song-Qing Yang, Qiu-Ping Yao, Jin-Ming Shen and Min Jin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:19

    The original article was published in BMC Urology 2020 20:188

  39. Active surveillance (AS) is a management option for men diagnosed with lower risk prostate cancer. There is wide variation in all aspects of AS internationally, from patient selection to investigations and fol...

    Authors: Samuel W. D. Merriel, Daniel Moon, Phil Dundee, Niall Corcoran, Peter Carroll, Alan Partin, Joseph A. Smith, Freddie Hamdy, Caroline Moore, Piet Ost and Tony Costello
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:18
  40. Several approaches for urethral catheterization after the failure of initial urethral catheterization have been introduced. However, standard procedures regarding what should be done after failed conventional ...

    Authors: Si Hyun Kim, Hee Jo Yang, Doo Sang Kim, Chang Ho Lee, Youn Soo Jeon and Ki Hong Kim
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:17
  41. Splenogondal fusion (SGF) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal association between the splenic tissue and the gonads or mesonephric remnants. SGF that requires separate two-stage laparoscopic...

    Authors: Guangjie Chen, Xiaohao Wang, Yijun Zhao, Linfeng Zhu and Daxing Tang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:16
  42. Phimosis is the inability to retract the preputium downward over the glans penis. Despite the various techniques of preputial plasty described in literature, the most performed surgical treatment is still the ...

    Authors: Pagano Carmine, Faenza Mario, Guastafierro Antonio, Manfellotto Vincenzo, Grella Elisa, Cosenza Angelo, Pieretti Gorizio and Izzo Sara
    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:15

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