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Table 1 Causes of renal vein thrombosis

From: Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis

Endothelial damage [18, 19] Stasis [18, 20] Hypercoagulability [18, 21]
Blunt trauma Severe volume losses e.g., GI fluid loss, haemorrhage, dehydration Nephrotic Syndrome: Membranous glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Minimal change disease
Trauma during venography Post transplant distortion/kink of renal vein Sepsis: Generalized/Localized (in and around kidney)
Renal transplant Primary retroperitoneal processes with renal vein compression Puerperium
Infiltration by tumour Severe volume losses e.g., GI fluid loss, haemorrhage, dehydration Disseminated malignancy
Acute rejection   Oral contraceptives
Vasculitis   Puerperium
Spontaneous micro-trauma to the endothelium e.g., in homocystinuria   Intrinsic Hypercoagulability: Factor V Leiden (Resistance to activated protein C), Prothrombin gene mutation (G20210A), Deficiency of Protein S, Deficiency of Protein C, Deficiency of anti-thrombin, Unknown/Poorly Understood causes, Anti-phospholipid Syndrome, Primary & Secondary e.g., SLE, Behcet’s disease, AIDS-associated nephropathy