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  1. Wilms’ tumor (nephroblastoma) is mostly unilateral; however, bilateral Wilms’ tumors are seen in about 5–8% of patients. This can be synchronous or metachronous. It is uncommon to get liver metastasis from bil...

    Authors: Senai Goitom Sereke, Abdirahman Omar Sahal, Vincent Mboizi and Felix Bongomin

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:91

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most frequent malignancy of the urinary system. The aim of this study was to identify key microRNAs (miRNAs) and hub genes associated with BC as well as analyse their targeted...

    Authors: Hongjian Wu, Wubing Jiang, Guanghua Ji, Rong Xu, Gaobo Zhou and Hongyuan Yu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Intra-operative cell salvage (IOCS) and leukocyte-depleted filter (LDF) are widely used and effective in saving blood. However, the safety issue concerning reinfusion of IOCS–LDF processed blood to renal cell ...

    Authors: Xiaoqing Zhang, Xiangyang Guo, Yanan Zong, Chuanya Xu, Jilian Wang, Bin Zhang, Chang Liu, Yueqing Gong, Lixiang Xue, Lulin Ma, Shudong Zhang, Yi Li and Hong Zeng

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:89

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a leading cause of morbidity in men over the age of 40. This study examined whether there was an association between body mass in...

    Authors: Ken Batai, Michael Phung, Robert Bell, Aye Lwin, Kieran A. Hynes, Elinora Price, Karleen M. Meiklejohn, Erika R. Bracamonte and Joel T. Funk

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Kaposi’s sarcoma is an uncommon complication in renal transplant patients, and typically presents with cutaneous lesions on the lower extremities. Penile involvement has been reported only rarely. Management o...

    Authors: Matthew A. Anderson, Tracey Ying, Kate Wyburn, Peter M. Ferguson, Madeleine C. Strach, Peter Grimison, Steve Chadban and David M. Gracey

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:87

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Ureteral obturator hernia is a rare condition, usually found accidentally during imaging examinations, or found during surgery. Ureteral hernia can easily lead to ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Long-...

    Authors: Yongqiang Hong, Siyu Zhang, Xiuying Kong, Yuxin Zhang, Shaokun Hong and Yuedong Chen

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:86

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Recent reports show that the pre-operative or post-operative skeletal mass index (sarcopenia) affects survival rates for various cancers; however, the link between prostate cancer survival and sarcopenia is un...

    Authors: Won Tae Kim, Ho Won Kang, Sung Pil Seo, Yong-June Kim, Sang Cheol Lee, Wun-Jae Kim, Bum Sang Cho, Yun Sok Ha, Tae Gyun Kwon, Jinsung Park, Seung Chol Park, Young Beom Jeong, Taek Won Kang, Sung-Woo Park and Seok Joong Yun

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) metastasizes in approximately 20–30% cases. The most common sites for metastases are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. Metastases of RCC in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are ver...

    Authors: Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar, Nasir Ud Din, Ramin Saadaat and Zubair Ahmad

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  9. To investigate the role of mpMRI and high PIRADS score as independent triggers in the qualification of patients with ISUP 1 prostate cancer on biopsy to radical prostatectomy.

    Authors: Łukasz Nyk, Omar Tayara, Tomasz Ząbkowski, Piotr Kryst, Aneta Andrychowicz and Wojciech Malewski

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

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  10. To examine one-year trajectories of urinary and sexual outcomes, and correlates of these trajectories, among prostate cancer patients treated by radical prostatectomy (RP).

    Authors: Lin Yang, Jung Ae Lee, Emily Heer, Claire Pernar, Graham A. Colditz, Ratna Pakpahan, Kellie R. Imm, Eric H. Kim, Robert L. Grubb III, Kathleen Y. Wolin, Adam S. Kibel and Siobhan Sutcliffe

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:81

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Machine learning has many attractive theoretic properties, specifically, the ability to handle non predefined relations. Additionally, studies have validated the clinical utility of mpMRI for the detection and...

    Authors: Shuanbao Yu, Jin Tao, Biao Dong, Yafeng Fan, Haopeng Du, Haotian Deng, Jinshan Cui, Guodong Hong and Xuepei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research

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  12. Air pockets between the lithotripter head and body surface are almost inevitably generated when applying a handful of gel onto the contact portion of the treatment head and that on the patient’s skin during co...

    Authors: Chien-Sheng Wang, Ching-Chia Li, Wen-Jeng Wu, Wen-Chin Liou, Yusen Eason Lin and Wei-Chuan Chen

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research

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  13. An accurate prediction model could identify high-risk subjects of incident Overactive bladder (OAB) among the general population and enable early prevention which may save on the related medical costs. However...

    Authors: Satoshi Funada, Yan Luo, Takashi Yoshioka, Kazuya Setoh, Yasuharu Tabara, Hiromitsu Negoro, Shusuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshimura, Fumihiko Matsuda, Toshi A. Furukawa, Orestis Efthimiou and Osamu Ogawa

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:78

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Bulbar urethral stricture is a common cause for urinary symptoms in men and its two main treatment options both have drawbacks with little evidence on their relative cost-effectiveness. Current guidelines on t...

    Authors: Jing Shen, Luke Vale, Beatriz Goulao, Paul Whybrow, Stephen Payne and Nick Watkin

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research

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  15. There has been a limited number of reports on the significance and risk factors of urethrovesical anastomotic urinary leakage (AUL) following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We aimed to analyze th...

    Authors: Shigenori Kakutani, Yuta Takeshima, Yuta Yamada, Tetsuya Fujimura, Shoichi Nagamoto, Yutaka Enomoto, Yuji Hakozaki, Naoki Kimura, Taro Teshima, Yoshiyuki Akiyama, Yusuke Sato, Taketo Kawai, Daisuke Yamada and Haruki Kume

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research

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  16. To analyze the risk factors of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and urosepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for upper urinary tract stones and to develop a nomogram to predict postoperative uro...

    Authors: Jun Liu, Qingya Yang, Jiayi Lan, Yang Hong, Xiaobo Huang and Bo Yang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Simultaneous urothelial cancer manifestation in the lower and upper urinary tract affects approximately 2% of patients. Data on the surgical benchmarks and mid-term oncological outcomes of enbloc robot-assiste...

    Authors: Stephan Buse, Assen Alexandrov, Elio Mazzone, Alexandre Mottrie and Axel Haferkamp

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is used to treat urinary tract calculi, but postoperative complications include shivering, fever and infection. To investigate the effects of irrigation fluid t...

    Authors: Yue He, You-Gang Feng, Jun He, Bo Liang, Ming-Dong Jiang, Jun Liu, Yong-Ming Kang, Li-Ping Ma, Qin Zhang, Qi-Jia Peng, Tao Yang, Yao Liu, Li Luo and Min Zhang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  19. To investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection therapy for vesicoureteral reflux in post-pubertal patients with dilated ureteral orifice via modified hydrodistension implantation techniques.

    Authors: Tetsuji Maruyama, Kentaro Mizuno, Hidenori Nishio, Taiki Kato, Takashi Hamakawa, Yosuke Ikegami, Takahiro Yasui and Yutaro Hayashi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research

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  20. Male factor is the major contributor in roughly half of infertility cases. Genetic factors account for 10–15% of male infertility. Microdeletions of azoospermia factors (AZF) on the Yq region are the second mo...

    Authors: Hassan Osman Alhassan Elsaid, Tarteel Gadkareim, Tagwa Abobakr, Eiman Mubarak, Mehad A. Abdelrhem, Dalya Abu, Elsir Abu Alhassan and Hind Abushama

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research

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  21. Due to the invasiveness of prostate biopsy, a prediction model of the individual risk of a positive biopsy result could be helpful to guide clinical decision-making. Most existing models are based on transrect...

    Authors: Yuliang Chen, Zhien Zhou, Yi Zhou, Xingcheng Wu, Yu Xiao, Zhigang Ji, Hanzhong Li and Weigang Yan

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:68

    Content type: Research

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  22. MRI is playing an increasing role in risk stratification and non-invasive diagnosis of the undifferentiated small renal mass. This study was designed to assess the reliability of MRI in diagnostic evaluation o...

    Authors: Suresh de Silva, Kathleen Rebecca Lockhart, Peter Aslan, Peter Nash, Anthony Hutton, David Malouf, Dominic Lee, Paul Cozzi, Fiona MacLean and James Thompson

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research

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  23. This study aimed to introduce a novel method for ureteroileal anastomosis, explore its clinical effectiveness, observe the incidence of postoperative anastomotic stricture, and compare the postoperative compli...

    Authors: Qi Wang, Liang Tang, Liangkuan Bi, Jie Min, Lu Fang, Wei Sun and Dexin Yu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:65

    Content type: Technical advance

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  24. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is the second most common genitourinary malignancy. Because of the low sensitivity of urinary cytology and the invasiveness and expense of frequent cystoscopies...

    Authors: Reza Yahyazadeh, Davood Bashash, Parisa Ghaffari, Saeid Kord, Ava Safaroghli-Azar and Seyed H. Ghaffari

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research

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  25. Primary Seminal Vesicle (SV) tumours are a rare entity, with most SV masses representing invasion of the SV by malignancy originating in an adjacent organ, most often the prostate. Previously reported primary ...

    Authors: B. Heijkoop, D. Bolton, D. Katz, Andrew Ryan, J. Epstein and S. Appu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:62

    Content type: Case report

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  26. While the resistance rates of commonly detected uropathogens are well described, those of less frequent Gram-negative uropathogenic bacteria have seldom been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the ...

    Authors: Jan Hrbacek, Pavel Cermak and Roman Zachoval

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  27. CD276 is an immune checkpoint molecule. Elevated CD276 expression by urothelial carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about its expression across different tumor stages. We therefore...

    Authors: Wilhelm K. Aicher, M. Korn, L. Reitnauer, F. B. Maurer, J. Hennenlotter, P. C. Black, T. Todenhofer, J. Bedke and A. Stenzl

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research

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  28. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perioperative parameters associated with bladder neck contracture (BNC) after transurethral surgery of the prostate and to compare the incidence of BNC after...

    Authors: Yi-Zhong Chen, Wun-Rong Lin, Yung-Chiong Chow, Wei-Kung Tsai, Marcelo Chen and Allen W. Chiu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research

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  29. Long-term use of urethral catheters is associated with high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) and blockage. Microbial biofilms are a common cause of catheter blockage, reducing their lifetime and significa...

    Authors: Florian H. H. Brill, Julia Hambach, Christian Utpatel, Diana C. Mogrovejo, Henrik Gabriel, Jan-Hendrik Klock, Joerg Steinmann and Andreas Arndt

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Intermittent catheterization (IC) is a common medical technique to drain urine from the bladder when this is no longer possible by natural means. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standard of car...

    Authors: Almuth Angermund, Gary Inglese, Jimena Goldstine, Laura Iserloh and Berit Libutzki

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:57

    Content type: Database

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  31. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is an inflammatory condition of the kidney and its treatment most often involves a combination of antibiotics and nephrectomy. This study aimed to define the clinical f...

    Authors: A. Artiles-Medina, I. Laso-García, J. Lorca-Álvaro, M. Mata-Alcaraz, G. Duque-Ruiz, M. Hevia-Palacios, F. Arias-Funez and F. J. Burgos-Revilla

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Hydronephrosis (HN) is the most common abnormality detected on prenatal ultrasound. This study sought to stratify outcomes of patients by severity of prenatal HN with postnatal outcomes.

    Authors: Zoë G. Baker, Arthi Hannallah, Melissa Trabold, Danielle Estell, Cherry Deng, Andy Y. Chang, S. Scott Sparks, Roger De Filippo and Evalynn Vasquez

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Severe hypercalcemia is often associated with uncontrolled malignancy through several mechanisms. However, calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia is a rare etiology for advanced solid tumors.

    Authors: Kai Johnson, Majd Issa, Anish Parikh, Paul Monk, Ming Yin, Amir Mortazavi and Yuanquan Yang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:51

    Content type: Case report

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  34. to describe the methodology of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy and the anatomy of the area of the verumontanum, and to determine the safety of this procedure, especially in terms of postoperative complicat...

    Authors: Wei-Kang Chen, Dong-Dong Yu, Zhi-Xia Chen, Peng-Fei Li, Jian Cai, Yu-Peng Liu and Zhi-Gang Wu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Existing evidence suggests that there is an association between body size and prevalent Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia. However, there is limited evidence on the association betw...

    Authors: Saira Khan, K. Y. Wolin, R. Pakpahan, R. L. Grubb, G. A. Colditz, L. Ragard, J. Mabie, B. N. Breyer, G. L. Andriole and S. Sutcliffe

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones are considered to be highly resistant to chemolysis. While significant organic matter has been identified within these stones, which is presumed to bind (inorganic) CaOx particles...

    Authors: Adi Adelman, Yaniv Shilo, Jonathan Modai, Dan Leibovici, Ishai Dror and Brian Berkowitz

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The advantages of photodynamic diagnostic technology using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDD) have been established. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the usefulness of ALA-PDD to diagnose ...

    Authors: Koichiro Wada, Motoo Araki, Ryuta Tanimoto, Takuya Sadahira, Shogo Watari, Yuki Maruyama, Yosuke Mitsui, Hirochika Nakajima, Herik Acosta, Satoshi Katayama, Takehiro Iwata, Shingo Nishimura, Atsushi Takamoto, Tomoko Sako, Kohei Edamura, Yasuyuki Kobayashi…

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a high dose cranberry proanthocyanidin extract for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Authors: Asma Babar, Lynne Moore, Vicky Leblanc, Stéphanie Dudonné, Yves Desjardins, Simone Lemieux, Valérie Bochard, Denis Guyonnet and Sylvie Dodin

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Inflammatory response biomarkers have been studied as promising prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma, but few studies have focused on papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). This study was performed to ev...

    Authors: Zhilei Zhang, Yongbo Yu, Jilu Zheng, Mingxin Zhang and Haitao Niu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2021 21:43

    Content type: Research article

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  • BMC Urology works with with Cochrane Urology in providing our authors with expert advice on systematic reviews and meta-analyses

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