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Table 4 The relationships between toileting behaviors and overactive bladder among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 1018)

From: Toileting behaviors and overactive bladder in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in China

Variables OR (95% CI) SE p value
Toileting behavior
 Premature voiding 1.286 (1.048–1.579) 0.135 0.016
 Straining to void 1.243 (1.026–1.506) 0.122 0.026
 Delayed voiding 1.259 (0.969–1.636) 0.168 0.084
 Place preference for voiding 0.883 (0.735–1.062) 0.083 0.188
Age 1.027 (1.006–1.049) 0.011 0.013
Sex (female vs. male) 0.484 (0.274–0.854) 0.140 0.012
Race/Ethnicity (Han vs. other) 4.624 (0.979–21.832) 3.662 0.053
Education (ref. = elementary school or lower)
 Middle school 0.831 (0.471–1.466) 0.241 0.522
 High school 0.638 (0.360–1.130) 0.186 0.124
 College or higher 0.584 (0.308–1.108) 0.191 0.100
Marital status (married vs. unmarried) 0.513 (0.285–0.922) 0.154 0.026
Living area (urban vs. rural) 1.219 (0.706–2.107) 0.340 0.477
Income (>3000 vs. ≤3000) 0.807 (0.523–1.245) 0.178 0.331
Smoker 1.105 (0.659–1.855) 0.292 0.705
Alcohol drinker 0.638 (0.379–1.073) 0.169 0.090
Tea drinker 1.215 (0.781–1.890) 0.274 0.388
Fluid intake (>2500 vs. ≤2500) 1.070 (0.726–1.575) 0.211 0.734
Exercise 0.823 (0.549–1.233) 0.170 0.345
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) a 1.266 (1.033–1.552) 0.131 0.023
Urinary tract infection history b 0.966 (0.496–1.880) 0.328 0.919
Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) 1.183 (1.001–1.397) 0.101 0.049
Diabetes mellitus duration 0.984 (0.955–1.013) 0.015 0.270
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy or retinopathy 1.506 (1.002–2.264) 0.313 0.049
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SE standard error
  2. aStandardized waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used in the analysis
  3. bPatients with type 2 diabetes who had a urinary tract infection at least one month before the survey