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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials

From: Intraoperative and postoperative feasibility and safety of total tubeless, tubeless, small-bore tube, and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials

Study

Year

Design

Procedures

Sample size

Age (year)

Stone burden

Tube

Stone-free rate

Quality assessment

Size

P-value

(%)

P-value

Chang et al. [41].

2011

RCT

Standard

63

58.7

24.86 ± 2.78 mm

0.722

20 Fr (7 Fr)

75%

0.51

Low

Total tubeless

68

59.2

24.74 ± 2.69 mm

 

None

74%

  

Aghamir et al. [42].

2011

RCT

Standard

35

40

2.87 ± 0.62 cm2

0.66

NA

83%

NA

Low

Total tubeless

35

38.4

2.81 ± 0.59 cm2

 

None

86%

  

Kara et al. [43].

2010

RCT

Standard

30

66.5

25.6 mm

NA

18 Fr

90%

>0.05

Low

Total tubeless

30

67.7

22.3 mm

 

None

96%

  

Mishra et al. [44].

2010

RCT

Standard

11

42.5

2737 μL

0.18

20 Fr

81.8%

0.14

Low

Tubeless

11

42.3

2934.2 μL

 

None (6 Fr)

72.7%

  

Istanbulluoglu et al. [45].

2009

RCT

Standard

45

43.9

432.35 ± 195.97 mm2

0.46

14 Fr

NA

NA

Low

Total tubeless

45

47.5

448.93 ± 249.13 mm2

 

None

NA

  

Crook et al. [46].

2008

RCT

Standard

25

53

17.5 mm

NA

26 Fr

84%

NA

Low

Total tubeless

25

52

21.6 mm

 

None

96%

  

Agrawal et al. [47].

2008

RCT

Standard

101

31

NA

NA

16 Fr

100%

Low

Tubeless

101

33

NA

 

None (6 Fr)

100%

  

Singh et al. [48].

2008

RCT

Standard

30

34

800 mm2

>0.05

22 Fr

93.3%

0.64

Moderate

Tubeless

30

31

750 mm2

 

None (NA)

90%

  

Shah et al. [18].

2008

RCT

Small-bore tube

32

46.7

495.92 mm2

0.88

8Fr

87.5%

0.96

Low

Tubeless

33

44.1

535.36 mm2

 

None (6 Fr)

87.9%

  

Sofikerim et al. [35].

2007

RCT

Standard

24

54.1

425 mm2

NA

24 Fr or 18 Fr

85% (24 Fr),

0.71

Moderate

Tubeless

24

47.8

428 mm2

 

None (6 Fr)

83% (18 Fr), 79%

  

Tefekli et al. [49].

2007

RCT

Standard

18

41.32

3.1 cm

NA

14 Fr

89%

>0.05

Moderate

Tubeless

17

38.4

2.8 cm

 

None (NA)

94%

  

Weiland et al. [50].

2007

RCT

Small-bore tube

9

65

6.7 cm2

0.15

8.3 Fr

  

Moderate

Tubeless

9

54

3.2 cm2

 

None (8.2 Fr)

   

Choi et al. [32].

2006

RCT

Small-bore tube

12

47

32.41 mm

0.77

8.2 Fr

91.7%

0.64

High

Tubeless

12

52.9

28.5 mm

 

None (6 Fr)

100%

  

Desai et al. [51].

2004

RCT

Standard

10

43.4

263.7 mm2

>0.05

20 Fr

100%

Moderate

Small-bore tube

10

44.8

243 mm2

 

9 Fr

100%

  

Tubeless

10

41.1

249.1 mm2

 

None (6 Fr)

100%

  

Marcovich et al. [52].

2004

RCT

Standard

20

58

3.6 cm

0.64

24 Fr

 

0.63

Moderate

Small-bore tube

20

61

3 cm

 

8 Fr

   

Tubeless

20

57

3.4 cm

 

None (NA)

   

Feng et al. [53].

2001

RCT

Standard

10

53

8.4 cm3

0.75

22 Fr

31.5%

NA

Moderate

Tubeless

8

62

4.4 cm3

 

None (NA)

71.4%

  
  1. NA not applicable, RCT randomized controlled trial