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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials

From: Intraoperative and postoperative feasibility and safety of total tubeless, tubeless, small-bore tube, and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials

Study Year Design Procedures Sample size Age (year) Stone burden Tube Stone-free rate Quality assessment
Size P-value (%) P-value
Chang et al. [41]. 2011 RCT Standard 63 58.7 24.86 ± 2.78 mm 0.722 20 Fr (7 Fr) 75% 0.51 Low
Total tubeless 68 59.2 24.74 ± 2.69 mm   None 74%   
Aghamir et al. [42]. 2011 RCT Standard 35 40 2.87 ± 0.62 cm2 0.66 NA 83% NA Low
Total tubeless 35 38.4 2.81 ± 0.59 cm2   None 86%   
Kara et al. [43]. 2010 RCT Standard 30 66.5 25.6 mm NA 18 Fr 90% >0.05 Low
Total tubeless 30 67.7 22.3 mm   None 96%   
Mishra et al. [44]. 2010 RCT Standard 11 42.5 2737 μL 0.18 20 Fr 81.8% 0.14 Low
Tubeless 11 42.3 2934.2 μL   None (6 Fr) 72.7%   
Istanbulluoglu et al. [45]. 2009 RCT Standard 45 43.9 432.35 ± 195.97 mm2 0.46 14 Fr NA NA Low
Total tubeless 45 47.5 448.93 ± 249.13 mm2   None NA   
Crook et al. [46]. 2008 RCT Standard 25 53 17.5 mm NA 26 Fr 84% NA Low
Total tubeless 25 52 21.6 mm   None 96%   
Agrawal et al. [47]. 2008 RCT Standard 101 31 NA NA 16 Fr 100% Low
Tubeless 101 33 NA   None (6 Fr) 100%   
Singh et al. [48]. 2008 RCT Standard 30 34 800 mm2 >0.05 22 Fr 93.3% 0.64 Moderate
Tubeless 30 31 750 mm2   None (NA) 90%   
Shah et al. [18]. 2008 RCT Small-bore tube 32 46.7 495.92 mm2 0.88 8Fr 87.5% 0.96 Low
Tubeless 33 44.1 535.36 mm2   None (6 Fr) 87.9%   
Sofikerim et al. [35]. 2007 RCT Standard 24 54.1 425 mm2 NA 24 Fr or 18 Fr 85% (24 Fr), 0.71 Moderate
Tubeless 24 47.8 428 mm2   None (6 Fr) 83% (18 Fr), 79%   
Tefekli et al. [49]. 2007 RCT Standard 18 41.32 3.1 cm NA 14 Fr 89% >0.05 Moderate
Tubeless 17 38.4 2.8 cm   None (NA) 94%   
Weiland et al. [50]. 2007 RCT Small-bore tube 9 65 6.7 cm2 0.15 8.3 Fr    Moderate
Tubeless 9 54 3.2 cm2   None (8.2 Fr)    
Choi et al. [32]. 2006 RCT Small-bore tube 12 47 32.41 mm 0.77 8.2 Fr 91.7% 0.64 High
Tubeless 12 52.9 28.5 mm   None (6 Fr) 100%   
Desai et al. [51]. 2004 RCT Standard 10 43.4 263.7 mm2 >0.05 20 Fr 100% Moderate
Small-bore tube 10 44.8 243 mm2   9 Fr 100%   
Tubeless 10 41.1 249.1 mm2   None (6 Fr) 100%   
Marcovich et al. [52]. 2004 RCT Standard 20 58 3.6 cm 0.64 24 Fr   0.63 Moderate
Small-bore tube 20 61 3 cm   8 Fr    
Tubeless 20 57 3.4 cm   None (NA)    
Feng et al. [53]. 2001 RCT Standard 10 53 8.4 cm3 0.75 22 Fr 31.5% NA Moderate
Tubeless 8 62 4.4 cm3   None (NA) 71.4%   
  1. NA not applicable, RCT randomized controlled trial