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Table 4 Mutually adjusted logistic regression analysis for pathological upgrading after RP

From: Pathological upgrading in prostate cancer treated with surgery in the United Kingdom: trends and risk factors from the British Association of Urological Surgeons Radical Prostatectomy Registry

Characteristic Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) p-value
Age 1.022 (1.016–1.028) < 0.001
Preoperative PSA 1.026 (1.022–1.031) < 0.001
Preoperative biopsy ISUP Grade Group
1 (reference) 1  
 2 0.123 (0.112–0.135) < 0.001
 3 0.057 (0.049–0.065) < 0.001
 4 0.085 (0.072–0.101) < 0.001
 5 0.030 (0.023–0.039) < 0.001
Preoperative clinical stage
 T1 (reference) 1  
 T2 1.231 (1.120–1.353) < 0.001
 T3 1.990 (1.774–2.232) < 0.001
 T4 1.199 (0.275–5.237) 0.809
Year of surgery
 2011 (reference) 1  
 2012 0.930 (0.749–1.156) 0.514
 2013 1.084 (0.896–1.311) 0.408
 2014 0.851 (0.710–1.021) 0.082
 2015 0.935 (0.782–1.118) 0.462
 2016 0.908 (0.759–1.086) 0.289
Region
 A 0.792 (0.403–1.556) 0.498
 B 1.077 (0.857–1.353) 0.526
 C 1.071 (0.906–1.265) 0.421
 D 0.980 (0.834–1.152) 0.808
 E 0.886 (0.704–1.115) 0.303
 F 1.152 (0.984–1.348) 0.078
 G 0.891 (0.743–1.068) 0.210
 H 1.980 (0.840–4.669) 0.118
 I 1.299 (0.688–2.452) 0.420
 J (reference)a 1  
 K 0.830 (0.706–0.976) 0.024
 L 0.863 (0.731–1.020) 0.084
 M 0.837 (0.678–1.033) 0.098
 N 1.132 (0.963–1.330) 0.133
 O 0.995 (0.741–1.338) 0.976
 P 0.654 (0.477–0.897) 0.008
  1. aRegion J chosen as a reference owing to largest number of patients