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Table 3 Description of studies: Author, year, country, condition, age, number of participants (number of men), aim, data collection, methodology, recruitment context, assessment of relevance and quality

From: A meta-ethnography to understand the experience of living with urinary incontinence: ‘is it just part and parcel of life?’

Author & Year Geography Condition Age Number (male) Aim to explore: Data collection, methodology Recruitment Relevance Assessment
1. Andersson et al. 2008 [116] Sweden UI 66–89 11 Experience of UI among women who do not desire further treatment Interviews,
Phenomenology
District nurse direct satisfactory
2. Andersson et al. 2009 [117] Sweden UI 30 80+ 14 Experience of UI among Syrian women living in Sweden Focus groups,
Phenomenology
Snowball sample direct satisfactory
3. Ashworth & Hagan 1993 [118] UK UI 25–55 28 Women’s’ experience of UI Interviews,
Phenomenology
newspaper direct key
4. Cochran 1998 [119] USA UI 60–88 19 (NK) Experience of UI of older persons living in the community Interviews,
Not stated
Community volunteer/doctor invite direct satisfactory
5. Doshani et al. 2007 [120] UK UI 36–82 24 Experience of UI among south Asian Indian women in Leicester, UK Focus groups,
Thematic analysis
South Asian community centres direct satisfactory
6. Dowd 1991 [121] USA UI 58–79 7 Experience of UI and adjustment in older women Interviews,
Grounded theory
‘convenience sample’ direct satisfactory
7. Getliffe et al. 2007 [122] UK UI 29–89 99 Experience of using absorbent products for ‘light’ UI and impact on women’s quality of life Interviews,
Thematic analysis
Incontinence services, consumer organisations and adverts indirect# satisfactory
8. Gjerde et al. 2013 [123] Ethiopia UI NK 181 Experience of UI in rural and semi urban settings in Ethiopia Interviews,
Systematic text condensation
part of a Incontinence and Prolapse study. direct satisfactory
9. Griffiths et al. 2009 [124] UK UI 30–74 22 Experience of physiotherapy sessions for the management of UI Interviews,
Thematic analysis
Embedded in a trial direct satisfactory
10. Hägglund & Wadesten [125] Sweden UI 34–52 14 Experience of UI Interviews,
Phenomenology
Cohort study; women who had not sought help direct satisfactory
11. Hägglund & Ahlström 2007 [126] Sweden UI 37–52 13 Experience of UI and health seeking in long-term UI Interviews,
Phenomenology
Cohort study; women who had sought help for UI direct satisfactory
12. Hamid et al. 2015 [127] Iran UI 52–68 17 Experience of Muslim community-dwelling postmenopausal women of UI Interviews,
Phenomenology
Community snowball sample direct satisfactory
13. Hayder & Schnepp a 2010 [128] Germany UI 38–83 32 (10) Experience of UI in daily life Interviews,
Grounded theory
Community advert direct key
14. Haydera 2012 [129] Germany UI 38–83 32 (10) Experience of UI and impact on sexuality and intimate relationships Interviews, Community advert direct satisfactory
15. Higa et al. 2011 [130] Brazil UI 30–45 8 the meanings of silence for Brazilian women with UI Interviews,
Content analysis,
Community snowball sample direct satisfactory
16. Horrocks et al. 2004 [131] UK UI 66–94 20 (9) Why older people living in the community do not seek help with UI Interviews,
Grounded theory
Community survey partial* satisfactory
17. Jackson et al. 2012 [132] USA UI NK 144 (71) How talking with others influences symptom management Interviews, Thematic analysis Community survey direct satisfactory
18. Kao et al. 2015 [133] Taiwan UI 44–66 12 Experiences of PFMT for UI and the impact on their sexuality Interviews,
Thematic analysis
Women who had gone to a PFMT education programme indirect satisfactory
19. Komorowski & Chen 2006 [134] China UI 24–81 15 Experiences of Chinese women living with UI Interviews,
IPA
Reported UK at Obstetrics and gynaecology department direct satisfactory
20. Li, Low & Lee 2007 [135] Hong Kong UI 42–77 9 Community-dwelling women’s experiences in coping with UI Interviews
Content analysis
Continence clinic (stress incontinence) direct satisfactory
21. Macinnes 2008 [136] UK UI 28–65 12 To explore why some women with UI drop out of healthcare Telephone interviews,
Thematic analysis
Continence clinic (stress incontinence) direct satisfactory
22. Mason et al.b 1999 [137] Australia UI 21–45 52 The effects of stress incontinence on women in their childbearing years Interviews,
Thematic analysis
One year post-partum with UI partial satisfactory
23. Mason et al. b2001 [138] Australia UI 21–45 52 are women made aware of UI at the time of childbirth and why some do not seek help Interviews,
Thematic analysis
One year post-partum with UI partial satisfactory
24. Milne 2006 [139] Canada UI 24–86 38 (5) Self-care strategies in UI and factors that influence their self-care choices 15 interviews/3 focus groups description Adverts in health clinics, newspapers, health education sessions, clinics direct satisfactory
25. Nicolson et al. 2008 [140] UK OAB 51–85 18 (8) Experiences of overactive bladder symptoms Interviews/focus groups,
Thematic analysis
Primary care, adverts direct satisfactory
26. Peake & Mandersonc 2003 [141] Australia UI 40–60 75 Social aspects of UI in women in their middle years. Interviews,
Thematic analysis
Primary care direct key
27. Peake, Manderson & Pottsc 1999 [142] Australia UI 40–60 75 Women’s discourse regarding theirown UI Interviews,
Thematic analysis
Primary care direct key
28. Roos et al. 2014 [143] Netherlands POP/UI 31–64 37 Impact of pelvic organ prolapse and/or UI on sexual dysfunction Interviews,
Thematic analysis
Scheduled for corrective surgery indirect satisfactory
29. Sange et al. 2008 [144] UK UI 21–70 9 Religious/cultural influences on help-seeking in south Asian Muslim women Focus groups,
Framework analysis
Language classes direct satisfactory
30. Shaw et al. 2001 [145] Australia UI 40–63 31 (8) Help seeking behaviour in people with UI and barriers to service use Interviews
Thematic analysis
Embedded in a continence service trial indirect satisfactory
31. Shaw et al. 2008 [146] UK UI 41–89 33 (18) help-seeking in middle and older aged people with UI Interviews
Grounded theory
Community survey direct satisfactory
32. Shaw, William & Assassa 2000 [147] Australia UI 40–62 23 (7) Patients’ views of a new nurse led continence service in a randomized trial Interviews
Thematic analysis
Post course led by continence nurse direct satisfactory
33. Siu 2014 [148]d Hong Kong OAB 21–59 30 Doctor-patient communication (female patients and male urologists) Interviews
Thematic analysis
OAB patient self-help group direct satisfactory
34. Siu 2015 [149]d Hong Kong OAB 21–59 30 Reasons behind doctor shopping behaviour in patients with overactive bladder Interviews
Thematic analysis
OAB patient self-help group direct satisfactory
35. Skoner & Haylor 1993 [150] USA UI 31–50 8 Perceptions of UI Interviews
Grounded theory
Women’s’ magazines or snowball sample direct satisfactory
36. St John, James & Mckenzie 2002 [151] Australia UI 40–66 11 (5) Perspectives of a service for community dwelling people with UI Interviews
Thematic analysis
Community health, continence service, home visits direct satisfactory
37. van Den Muijsenbergh & Lagro-Janssen 2006 [152] Netherlands UI 45 MEAN 30 The impact of UI on Moroccan and Turkish women and their treatment preferences Interviews
Thematic analysis
Primary care, pelvic floor physio, Moroccan care consultants direct satisfactory
38. Welch et al. e 2012 [153] USA LUTS 34–85 90 (49) qualitative methods for developing patient-reported outcomes Interviews
Thematic analysis
Community survey indirect satisfactory
39. Welch, Taubenberger & Tennstedte 2011 [154] USA LUTS 34–85 90 (49) Treatment seeking for lower urinary tract symptoms Interviews
Thematic analysis
Community survey indirect satisfactory
40. Wilkinson 2001 [155] Australia UI 40–64 6 Experiences of Pakistani women with UI Interviews
Thematic analysis
Continence service direct satisfactory
41. Zeznock, Gilje & Bradway 2009 [156] Alaska UI 33–86 17 Experiences of Alaskan women living with UI in rural/urban settings Interviews
Thematic analysis
Urological, women’s health and primary care direct satisfactory
  1. OAB overactive bladder, POP pelvic organ prolapse, LUTS lower urinary tract infection, IPA interpretative phenomenological analysis
  2. 1 5/18 constant UI from obstetric fistula, others had mild to continuous leakage; *2 men had permanent indwelling catheters; # 16/99 linked to other conditions
  3. a,b,c,d,e themes drawn from a single cohort in these studies