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Table 8 Summary of BPH marker analysis

From: A double blind, placebo-controlled randomized comparative study on the efficacy of phytosterol-enriched and conventional saw palmetto oil in mitigating benign prostate hyperplasia and androgen deficiency

Variable Observed value Change from baseline
Intervention
(VISPO)
n = 33
Comparator
(SPO)
n = 33
Placebo
n = 33
p-value** Intervention
(VISPO)
n = 33
p-value* Comparator
(SPO)
n = 33
p-value* Placebo
n = 33
p-value* p-value**
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) (ng/ml)
Visit 1 2.77 ± 0.56 2.80 ± 0.72 2.83 ± 0.52 0.931(1)  
Visit 3 2.70 ± 0.59 2.99 ± 0.66 3.01 ± 0.54 0.072(1) −0.07 ± 0.032a 0.233 0.19 ± 0.40b 0.011 0.18 ± 0.40b 0.013 0.008(1)
5α-reductase (ng/L)
Visit 1 445.90 ± 105.40 434.32 ± 93.76 441.31 ± 96.32 0.891(1)  
Visit 3 438.24 ± 98.56 440.40 ± 101.24 444.08 ± 138.16 0.978(1) −7.66 ± 60.60 0.473 6.08 ± 51.46 0.502 2.77 ± 95.49 0.868 0.720(1)
Total testosterone (ng/L)
Visit 1 459.62 ± 131.80 490.54 ± 166.66 433.50 ± 138.80 0.290(1)        
Visit 3 454.86 ± 137.31 481.02 ± 151.57 408.44 ± 140.43 0.119(1) −4.76 ± 56.96 0.634 −9.52 ± 52.69 0.307 −25.07 ± 37.86 0.001 0.229(1)
Free testosterone (ng/dL)
Visit 1 6.23 ± 1.16 6.26 ± 1.73 5.83 ± 1.31 0.394(1)  
Visit 3 6.46 ± 1.43 6.15 ± 1.62 5.64 ± 1.30 0.075(1) 0.23 ± 0.77a 0.093 −0.11 ± 0.60ab 0.294 −0.19 ± 0.43b 0.015 0.015(1)
  1. Data presented as: Mean ± SD; N = No of subjects; a-c values within a row with different superscript letters differ (p < 0.05), as analyzed by one-way ANOVA
  2. *p values were compared within each group from baseline using paired t test;
  3. **p values were compared between groups
  4. 1)P values were derived from ANOVA, and Scheffe test was used to post hoc test
  5. 2)P values were derived from Kruskal-Wallis test, and Dunnett T3 test was used to post hoc test